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Subject: Physiology, Ecology, Morphology, Molecular Biology, and Taxonomy of Pseudo-nitzschia

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Results 1 to 813 of 813

Physiology, Ecology, Morphology, Molecular Biology, and Taxonomy of Pseudo-nitzschia

Adams, N.G., A. MacFadyen, B.M. Hickey, and V.L. Trainer. 2006. The nearshore advection of a toxigenic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom and subsequent domoic acid contamination of intertidal bivalves. African J. Mar. Sci. 28: 271-276. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Adams, N.G., P. Schwenke, G.J. Smith, and V.L. Trainer. 2017. Microsatellite markers for population genetic applications in the domoic acid-producing diatom Pseudo-nitzschia australis Frenguelli (Bacillariophyceae). Protist 168: 197-205. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Adams, N.G., V.L. Trainer, G. Rocap, R.P. Herwig, and L. Hauser. 2009. Genetic population structure of Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (Bacillariophyceae) from the Pacific Northwest and the North Sea. J. Phycol. 45: 1037-1045. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Adams, Nicolaus G. 2006. Genetic differentiation of Pseudo-nitzschia pungens from the Pacific Northwest and the North Sea. Master's Thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, 96 p. (PDF file; 1.9 MB)

Adelfi, M.G., M. Borra, R. Sanges, M. Montresor, A. Fontana, and M.I. Ferrante. 2014. Selection and validation of reference genes for qPCR analysis in the pennate diatoms Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata and P. arenysensis. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 451: 74-81. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Afonso-Carrillo, J. 2014. Lista actualizada de las algas marinas de las islas Canarias, 2014. Las Palmas: Elaborada para la Sociedad Española de Ficología (SEF), p. 1-64. [lists P. cuspidata, P. decipiens, P. delicatissima, P. inflatula, P. pungens, P. seriata, P. subcurvata, P. subpacifica] (PDF file from ResearchGate)

Ahn, S., D.M. Kulis, D.L. Erdner, D.M. Anderson, and D.R. Walt. 2006. Fiber-optic microarray for simultaneous detection of multiple harmful algal bloom species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72: 5742-5749. [includes Pseudo-nitzschia australis] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Aizdaicher, N.A. 1999. Effect of desalination on the diatom Pseudonitzschia pungens. Russ. J. Mar. Biol. 25: 68-70. (Abstract in ResearchGate)

Ajani, P., J.H. Kim, M.S. Han, and S.A. Murray. 2016. The first report of the potentially harmful diatom Pseudo-nitzschia caciantha from Australian coastal waters. Phycol. Res. 64: 312-317. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Ajani, P., S. Brett, M. Krogh, P. Scanes, G. Webster, and L. Armand. 2013. The risk of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the oyster-growing estuaries of New South Wales, Australia. Environ. Monit. Assess. 185: 5295-5316. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Ajani, P., S. Murray, G. Hallegraeff, N. Lundholm, M. Gillings, S. Brett, and L. Armand. 2013. The diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) in New South Wales, Australia: morphotaxonomy, molecular phylogeny, toxicity, and distribution. J. Phycol. 49: 765-785. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Ajani, P., S. Murray, G. Hallegraeff, S. Brett, and L. Armand. 2013. First reports of Pseudo-nitzschia micropora and P. hasleana (Bacillariaceae) from the Southern Hemisphere: morphological, molecular and toxicological characterization. Phycol. Res. 61: 237-248. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Ajani, P., S. Murray, G. Hallegraeff, S. Brett, G. Webster, and L. Armand. 2014. Identification and seasonal occurrence of potentially toxic Pseudo-nitzschia diatoms in oyster growing estuaries of New South Wales, Australia, p. 100-103. In: C. McLeod, H. Farrell, G.M. Hallegraeff, and A. Zammit [eds.] Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Molluscan Shellfish Safety, Sydney, 17-22 March 2013. (PDF file; 802 KB) (Website for the conference proceedings)

Akallal, R., A. Mouradi, T. Givernaud, and C. Billard. 2000. Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima bloom in Atlantic Moroccan waters 1999. Harmful Algae News, No. 20, p. 14. (PDF file of HAN No. 20; 1.2 MB)

Akallal, R., C. Billard, J. Fresnel, T. Givernaud, and A. Mouradi. 2002. Contribution à l'étude du phytoplancton de la côte atlantique marocaine II. Le gendre Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae). Cryptogamie Algol. 23: 187-202. (Résumé / Abstract)

Aké-Castillo, J.A. and Y.B. Okolodkov. 2009. Pseudo-nitzschia subcurvata (Bacillariophyceae) in the Gulf of Mexico? Harmful Algae News, No. 40, p. 6-7. (PDF in ResearchGate) (PDF version of HAN No. 40; 9 MB)

Al Muftah, A.I. Selwood, A.J. Foss, H.M.S.J. Al-Jabri, M. Potts, and M. Yilmaz. 2016. Algal toxins and producers in the marine waters of Qatar, Arabian Gulf. Toxicon 122: 54-66. [discusses domoic acid and Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Al-Azri, A.R., K.A. Al-Hashmi, H. Al-Habsi, N. Al-Azri, and S. Al-Khusaibi. 2015. Abundance of harmful algal blooms in the coastal waters of Oman: 2006–2011. Aquat. Ecosyst. Health Manag. 18: 269-281. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima, P. pungens, P. seriata] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Al-Hashmi, K.A., S.L. Smith, M. Claereboudt, S.A. Piontkovski, and A. Al-Azri. 2015. Dynamics of potentially harmful phytoplankton in a semi-enclosed bay in the Sea of Oman. Bull. Mar. Sci. 91: 141-166. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima, P. pungens, P. seriata] (PDF file)

Al-Yamani, F., M. Saburova, and I. Polikarpov. 2012. A preliminary assessment of harmful algal blooms in Kuwait’s marine environment. Aquat. Ecosyst. Health Manage. 15(S1): 64–72. [discusses P. pungens, P. seriata] (PDF file; 355 KB) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Alkawri, A.A.S. and N. Ramaiah. 2011. Distribution of diatom Pseudo-nitzschia and dinoflagellates of Dinophysis spp along coast off Goa. J. Environ. Biol. 32: 65-70. (Open Access PDF file; 280 KB)

Almandoz, G.O., E. Fabro, M. Ferrario, U. Tillmann, A. Cembella, and B. Krock. 2017. Species occurrence of the potentially toxigenic diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia and the associated neurotoxin domoic acid in the Argentine Sea. Harmful Algae 63: 45-55. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Almandoz, G.O., G.A. Ferreyra, I.R. Schloss, A.I. Dogliotti, V. Rupolo, F.E. Paparazzo, J.L. Esteves, and M.E. Ferrario. 2008. Distribution and ecology of Pseudo-nitzschia species (Bacillariophyceae) in surface waters of the Weddell Sea (Antarctica). Polar Biol. 31: 429-442. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Almandoz, G.O., M. Hernando, and M.E. Ferrario. 2008. SEM observations of Pseudo-nitzschia from the Beagle Channel: P. seriata in the southern hemisphere? Harmful Algae News, No. 38, p. 8-9. (PDF file of HAN No. 38; 4.0 MB)

Almandoz, G.O., M. Hernando, and M.E. Ferrario. 2009. SEM observations of Pseudo-nitzschia from Beagle Channel: P. seriata in the southern hemisphere? Harmful Algae News, No. 39, p. 6-7. (PDF file of HAN No. 39; 2.0 MB)

Almandoz, G.O., M.E. Ferrario, G.A. Ferreyra, I.R. Schloss, J.L. Esteves, and F.E. Paparazzo. 2007. The genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) in continental shelf waters of Argentina (Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, 38-55ºS). Harmful Algae 6: 93-103. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Almandoz, G.O., M.P. Hernando, G.A. Ferreyra, I.R. Schloss and M.E. Ferrario. 2011. Seasonal phytoplankton dynamics in extreme southern South America (Beagle Channel, Argentina). J. Sea Res. 66: 47-57. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia species] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Álvarez, G., E. Uribe, S. Quijano-Scheggia, A. López-Rivera, C. Mariño, J. Blanco. 2009. Domoic acid production by Pseudo-nitzschia australis and Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha isolated from North Chile. Harmful Algae 8: 938-945. [also discusses P. pseudodelicatissima and P. subfraudulenta] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Álvarez, Gonzalo. 2005. Aislamiento, cultivo y ciclo de vida de la diatomea pennada potencialmente tóxica Pseudo-nitzschia australis (Frenguelli, 1939). Master's Thesis. Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo, Chile. (in Spanish) (PDF of thesis defense announcement)

Amato A., L. Orsini, D. D’Alelio, and M. Montresor. 2005. Life cycle, size reduction patterns, and ultrastructure of the pennate planktonic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima (Bacillariophyceae). J. Phycol. 41: 542–556. (Publisher's abstract and link to pdf file) (PDF file in Academia.edu)

Amato, A. and L. Orsini. 2015. Rare interspecific breeding in Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae). Phytotaxa 217: 145-154. (PDF file from Academia.edu) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Amato, A. and M. Montresor. 2008. Morphology, phylogeny, and sexual cycle of Pseudo-nitzschia mannii sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae): a pseudo-cryptic species within the P. pseudodelicatissima complex. Phycologia 47: 487-497. (PDF file in Academia.edu) (PDF file in Academia.edu) (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Amato, A., A. Lüdeking, and W.H.C.F. Kooistra. 2010. Intracellular domoic acid production in Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata isolated from the Gulf of Naples (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). Toxicon 55: 157-161. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Amato, A., W.H.C.F. Kooistra, J.H. Levialdi Ghiron, D.G. Mann, T. Pröschold, and M. Montresor. 2007. Reproductive isolation among sympatric cryptic species in marine diatoms. Protist 158: 193-207. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima and P. pseudodelicatissima] (PDF file outside DFO's website) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Amin, S.A., L.R. Hmelo, H.M. van Tol, B.P. Durham, L.T. Carlson, K.R. Heal, R.L. Morales, C.T. Berthiaume, M.S. Parker, B. Djunaedi, A.E. Ingalls, M.R. Parsek, M.A. Moran, and E.V. Armbrust. 2015. Interaction and signalling between a cosmopolitan phytoplankton and associated bacteria. Nature 522: 98–101. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file) (Summary of significance of article, in Nature)

Amorim, A., V. Veloso, B. Frazão, and A.P. Alves de Matos. 2009. TEM identification of Pseudo-nitzschia species from Lisbon Bay (NE Atlantic). Micros. Microannal. 3(Suppl. S3): 9-10. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Anderson, C.R., D.A. Siegel, M.A. Brzezinski, and N. Guillocheau. 2008. Controls on temporal patterns in phytoplankton community structure in the Santa Barbara Channel, California. J. Geophys. Res. - Oceans 113: C04038, doi:10.1029/2007JC004321 [includes discussion of Pseudo-nitzschia spp.) (PDF download; 1.1. MB) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Anderson, C.R., D.A. Siegel, R.M. Kudela, and M.A. Brzezinski. 2009. Empirical models of toxigenic Pseudo-nitzschia spp.: potential use as a remote detection tool in the Santa Barbara Channel. Harmful Algae 8: 478-492. (PDF file; 2.2 MB) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Anderson, C.R., M.A. Brzezinski, L. Washburn, and R. Kudela. 2006. Circulation and environmental conditions during a toxigenic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom in the Santa Barbara Channel, California. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 327: 119-133. (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Anderson, C.R., M.R.P. Sapiano, M.B.K. Prasad, W. Long, P.J. Tango, C.W. Brown, and R. Murtugudde. 2010. Predicting potentially toxigenic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms in the Chesapeake Bay. J. Mar. Syst. 83: 127–140. (PDF file of the "in press" version) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Anderson, C.R., R.M. Kudela, C. Benitez-Nelson, E. Sekula-Wood, C.T. Burrell, Y. Chao, G. Langlois, J. Goodman, and D.A. Siegel. 2011. Detecting toxic diatom blooms from ocean color and a regional ocean model. Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L04603, doi:10.1029/2010GL045858. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia blooms] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Anderson, C.R., R.M. Kudela, M. Kahru, Y. Chao, L.K. Rosenfeld, F.L. Bahr, D.M. Anderson, and T.A. Norris. 2016. Initial skill assessment of the California Harmful Algae Risk Mapping (C-HARM) system. Harmful Algae 59: 1-18. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia blooms] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Anderson, Clarissa R. 2007. Environmental controls of phytoplankton community structure in the Santa Barbara Channel, California: application to the dynamics and detection of toxigenic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms. PhD Thesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, 166 p. (Abstract)

Andree, K. 2010. A quantitative PCR assay for selected species of Pseudo-nitzschia found along the Catalan coast of Spain, p. 90-93. In: Ho, K.-C., M.J. Zhou, and Y.Z. Qi [eds.] Harmful algae 2008. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Harmful Algae, 3-7 November 2008, Hong Kong, China. International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae, Environmental Publ. House, Hong Kong. (Ordering information and link to Table of Contents)

Andree, K.B., M. Fernández-Tejedor, L.M. Elandaloussi, S. Quijano-Scheggia, N. Sampedro, E. Garcés, J. Camp, and J. Diogène. 2011. Quantitative PCR coupled with melt curve analysis for detection of selected Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) from the NW Mediterranean Sea. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77: 1651-1659. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Arapov, J., I. Ujević, D.M. Pfannkuchen, J. Godrijan, A. Bakrač, Ž.N. Gladan, and I. Marasović. 2016. Domoic acid in phytoplankton net samples and shellfish from the Krka River estuary in the Central Adriatic Sea. Medit. Mar. Sci. 17: 340-350. [also discusses Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha, P. pseudodelicatissima, P. pungens, P. subfraudulenta] (PDF file) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Arapov, J., S. Skejić, M. Bužančić, A. Bakrač, O. Vidjak, N. Bojanić, I. Ujević, and Ž.N. Gladan. 2017. Taxonomical diversity of Pseudo-nitzschia from the Central Adriatic Sea. Phycol. Res. 65: 280–290. [discusses P. calliantha, P. delicatissima, P. fraudulenta, P. pseudodelicatissima/P. cuspidata, P. subfraudulenta] (PDF file available from ResearchGate) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Assmy, P., J. Henjes, C. Klaas, and V. Smetacek. 2007. Mechanisms determining species dominance in a phytoplankton bloom induced by the iron fertilization experiment EisenEx in the Southern Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. Part 1. 54: 340-362. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia lineola fast growth after iron addition, and non-detectable domoic acid] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Aumeier, C., E. Polinski, and D. Menzel. 2015. Actin, actin-related proteins and profilin in diatoms: a comparative genomic analysis. Mar. Genomics 23: 133-142. [includes Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Auro, M.E. and W.P. Cochlan. 2013. Nitrogen utilization and toxin production by two diatoms of the Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima complex: P. cuspidata and P. fryxelliana. J. Phycol. 49: 156–169. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Auro, Maureen E. 2007. Nitrogen dynamics and toxicity of the pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschia cuspidata: a field and laboratory study. M.S. Thesis, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California, USA, 91 p.

Ayers, K., L.L. Rhodes, J. Tyrrell, M. Gladstone, and C. Scholin. 2005. International accreditation of sandwich hybridisation assay format DNA probes for micro-algae. New Zealand J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 39: 1225–1231. [Includes Pseudo-nitzschia australis.] (PDF file; 55 KB) (Publisher's abstract)

Badylak, S., E. Philips, and K. Kelley. 2006. Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha (Bacillariophyceae) from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida. Diatom Res. 21: 263-267. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Bailey, April. 2008. Pseudo-nitzschia species distributions in Glacier Bay, AK as measured by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA). Senior thesis written for Oceanography 444, University of Washington, Seattle, USA, 12 p. (Abstract and link to PDF file) (PDF file; 462 KB)

Bajarias, F.F.A., Y. Kotaki, J.R. Relox, Jr., M.L.J. Romero, E.F. Furio, N. Lundholm, K. Koike, Y. Fukuyo, and M. Kodama. 2006. Screening of diatoms producing domoic acid and its derivatives in the Philippines. Coast. Mar. Sci. 30: 121-129. (Abstract) (Open Acess PDF file)

Balzano, S., I. Percopo, R. Siano, P. Gourvil, M. Chanoine, M. Dominique, D. Vaulot, and D. Sarno. 2017. Morphological and genetic diversity of Beaufort Sea diatoms with high contributions from the Chaetoceros neogracilis species complex. J. Phycol. 53: 161-187. [discusses P. granii, P. arctica] (PDF file from ResearchGate; 3.8 MB) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Bargu, S., M.M. Baustian, N.N. Rabalais, R. Del Rio, B. Von Korff, and R.E. Turner. 2016. Influence of the Mississippi River on Pseudo-nitzschia spp. abundance and toxicity in Louisiana coastal waters. Estuar. Coasts 39: 1345-1356. [mentions P. calliantha, P. pseudodelicatissima] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Bargu, S., T. Koray, and N. Lundholm. 2002. First report of Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha Lundholm, Moestrup & Hasle 2003, a new potentially toxic species from Turkish coasts. E.U. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 19: 479-483. (PDF file outside DFO's website)

Barocio-Leóna, Ó.A., R. Millán-Núñeza, E. Santamaría-del-Ángela, A. Gonzalez-Silveraa, C.C. Treesb, and E. Orellana-Cepeda. 2008. Bio-optical characteristics of a phytoplankton bloom event off Baja California Peninsula (30–31°N). Continental Shelf Res. 28: 672-681. [mentions Pseudo-nitzschia australis and P. seriata blooms] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Barra, L., M.V. Ruggiero, D. Sarno, M. Montresor, and W.H.C.F. Kooistra. 2013. Strengths and weaknesses of microarray approaches to detect Pseudo-nitzschia species in the field. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 20: 6705-6718. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Barra, L., M.V. Ruggiero, J. Chen, and W.H.C.F. Kooistra. 2014. Specificity of LSU rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes for Pseudo-nitzschia species tested through dot-blot hybridisation. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 21: 548-557. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Barron, J.A., D. Bukry, D.B. Field, and B. Finney. 2013. Response of diatoms and silicoflagellates to climate change and warming in the California Current during the past 250 years and the recent rise of the toxic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia australis. Quaternary Internat. 310: 140-154. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Basu, S., S. Patil, D. Mapleson, M.T. Russo, L. Vitale, C. Fevola, F. Maumus, R. Casotti, T. Mock, M. Caccamo, M. Montresor, R. Sanges, and M.I. Ferrante. 2017. Finding a partner in the ocean: molecular and evolutionary bases of the response to sexual cues in a planktonic diatom. New Phytologist 215: 140-156. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Bates, S.S. and J. Richard. 1996. Domoic acid production and cell division by P. multiseries in relation to a light:dark cycle in silicate-limited chemostat culture, p. 140-143. In: R. Penney [ed.] Proceedings of the Fifth Canadian Workshop on Harmful Marine Algae. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2138.

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Bates, S.S. and N.A. Davidovich. 2002. Factors affecting the sexual reproduction of diatoms, with emphasis on Pseudo-nitzschia spp., p. 31-36. In: E. Garcés, A. Zingone, B. Dale, M. Montresor, and B. Reguera [eds.] Proceedings of the LIFEHAB Workshop: Life history of microalgal species causing harmful algal blooms. Commission of the European Community. (PDF file outside DFO's website; link to entire Proceedings - 8 MB)

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Bates, S.S. and P.M. Strain. 2006. Nutrients and phytoplankton in Prince Edward Island inlets during late summer to fall: 2001–2003. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2668: xii + 136 p. (PDF file; 5.2 MB)

Bates, S.S., A.S.W. de Freitas, J.E. Milley, R. Pocklington, M.A. Quilliam, J.C. Smith, and J. Worms. 1991. Controls on domoic acid production by the diatom Nitzschia pungens f. multiseries in culture: nutrients and irradiance. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48: 1136-1144. (PDF file from ResearchGate) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Archived File

The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF file; 759 KB)

Bates, S.S., C. Léger, and K.M. Smith. 1996. Domoic acid production by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries as a function of division rate in silicate-limited chemostat culture, p. 163-166. In: T. Yasumoto, Y. Oshima, and Y. Fukuyo [eds.] Harmful and toxic algal blooms. Intergov. Oceanogr. Comm., UNESCO, Paris.

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Bates, S.S., C. Léger, B.A. Keafer, and D.M. Anderson. 1993. Discrimination between domoic-acid-producing and nontoxic forms of the diatom Pseudonitzschia pungens using immunofluorescence. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 100: 185-195. (Open Access PDF file; 1.5 MB)

Bates, S.S., C. Léger, M.F. Satchwell, and G.L. Boyer. 2001. The effects of iron on domoic acid production by Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries, p. 320-323. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, S.I. Blackburn, C.J. Bolch, and R.J. Lewis [eds.] Harmful Algal Blooms 2000. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris.

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Bates, S.S., C.A. Scholin, M. Ferguson, and C. Léger. 1999. Application of ribosomal RNA-targeted probes to detect Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. pungens in Atlantic Canadian waters, p. 63-67. In: J.L. Martin and K. Haya [eds.] Proceedings of the Sixth Canadian Workshop on Harmful Marine Algae. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2261.

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Bates, S.S., C.J. Bird, A.S.W. de Freitas, R. Foxall, M. Gilgan, L.A. Hanic, G.R. Johnson, A.W. McCulloch, P. Odense, R. Pocklington, M.A. Quilliam, P.G. Sim, J.C. Smith, D.V. Subba Rao, E.C.D. Todd, J.A. Walter, and J.L.C. Wright. 1989. Pennate diatom Nitzschia pungens as the primary source of domoic acid, a toxin in shellfish from eastern Prince Edward Island, Canada. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46: 1203-1215. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

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Bates, S.S., C.J. Bird, R.K. Boyd, A.S.W. de Freitas, M. Falk, R.A. Foxall, L.A. Hanic, W.D. Jamieson, A.W. McCulloch, P. Odense, M.A. Quilliam, P.G. Sim, P. Thibault, J.A. Walter, and J.L.C. Wright. 1988. Investigations on the source of domoic acid responsible for amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) in eastern Prince Edward Island. Atlantic Research Laboratory Technical Report 57, 59 p. (PDF file; 2.3 MB)

Bates, S.S., D.J. Douglas, G.J. Doucette, and C. Léger. 1995. Effects of reintroducing bacteria on domoic acid production by axenic cultures of the diatom Pseudonitzschia pungens f. multiseries, p. 401-406. In: P. Lassus, G. Arzul, E. Erard, P. Gentien, and C. Marcaillou-Le Baut [eds.] Harmful marine algal blooms. Lavoisier Sci. Publ., Paris.

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Bates, S.S., D.J. Douglas, G.J. Doucette, and C. Léger. 1995. Enhancement of domoic acid production by reintroducing bacteria to axenic cultures of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. Natural Toxins 3: 429-435.

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Bates, S.S., J. Gaudet, I. Kaczmarska, and J.M. Ehrman. 2004. Interaction between bacteria and the domoic-acid-producing diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (Hasle) Hasle; can bacteria produce domoic acid autonomously? Harmful Algae 3: 11-20. (Publisher's abstract and access to PDF file)

Bates, S.S., J. Worms, and J.C. Smith. 1993. Effects of ammonium and nitrate on domoic acid production by Nitzschia pungens in batch culture. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 50: 1248-1254.

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Bates, S.S., M.F. Hiltz, and C. Léger. 1999. Domoic acid toxicity of large new cells of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries resulting from sexual reproduction, p. 21-26. In: J.L. Martin and K. Haya [eds.] Proceedings of the Sixth Canadian Workshop on Harmful Marine Algae. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2261.

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The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF file; 52 KB)

Baugh, K.A., J.M. Bush, B.D. Bill, K.A. Lefebvre, and V.L. Trainer. 2006. Estimates of specific toxicity in several Pseudo-nitzschia species from the Washington coast, based on culture and field studies. African J. Mar. Sci. 28: 393-397. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Baytut, Ö. 2013. A study on the phylogeny and phylogeography of a marine cosmopolite diatom from the southern Black Sea. Oceanol. Hydrobiol. Studies 42: 406-411. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia pungens] (PDF file from ResearchGate) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Baytut, Ö., Ø. Moestrup, N. Lundholm, and A. Gönülol. 2013. Contributions to the diatom flora of the Black Sea from ultrastructural and molecular studies: new records of Skeletonema marinoi, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens var. aveirensis and Chaetoceros tenuissimus for the marine flora of Turkey. Nova Hedwigia 96: 427-444. [also mentions P. calliantha] (PDF file from ResearchGate) (Publisher's website and link to PDF file)

Bazzoni, A.M., A.G. Mudadu, G. Lorenzoni, I. Arras, A. Lugliè, B. Vivaldi, V. Cicotelli, G. Sanna, G. Tedde, S. Ledda, E. Alesso, E. Marongiu, and S. Virgilio. 2016. Occurrence of harmful algal species and shellfish toxicity in Sardinia (Italy). Ital. J. Food Safety 5: 194-199. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp., and ASP] (PDF file to correct spelling; "Cicotelli" should be "Ciccotelli") (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Bazzoni, A.M., T. Caddeo, S. Pulina, B.M. Padedda, C.T. Satta, N. Sechi, and A. Lugliè. 2015. Spatial distribution and multiannual trends of potentially toxic microalgae in shellfish farms along the Sardinian coast (NW Mediterranean Sea). Environ. Monit. Assess. 187: 86. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Belhaouari, B., M. Setti, and A. Kawther. 2017. Monitoring of phytoplankton on coast of Ténès (Algeria). J. Water Sci. Environ. Technol. 2: 159-263. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (in French) (PDF file in ResearchGate)

Bellinger, B.J. and S.E. Hagerthey. 2010. Presence and diversity of algal toxins in subtropical peatland periphyton: the Florida everglades, USA. J. Phycol. 46: 674-678. [discusses the presence of domoic acid in periphyton mats] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Besiktepe, S., L. Ryabushko, D. Ediger, D. Yilmaz, A. Zenginer, V. Ryabushko, and R. Lee. 2008. Domoic acid production by Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha Lundholm, Moestrup et Hasle (Bacillariophyta) isolated from the Black Sea. Harmful Algae 7: 438-442. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Bhadury, P. and B.B. Ward. 2009. Molecular diversity of marine phytoplankton communities based on key functional genes. J. Phycol. 54: 1335-1347. [discusses several Pseudo-nitzschia species] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Bialonski, S., D.A. Caron, J. Schloen, U. Feudel, H. Kantz, and S.D. Moorthi. 2016. Phytoplankton dynamics in the Southern California Bight indicate a complex mixture of transport and biology. J. Plankton Res. 38: 1077-1091. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia seriata and P. delicatissima size classes] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Bill, B.D., W.P. Cochlan, and V.L. Trainer. 2012. The effect of light on growth rate and primary productivity in Pseudo-nitzschia australis and Pseudo-nitzschia turgidula, p. 78-80. In: P. Pagou and G. Hallegraeff [eds.] Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Harmful Algae. International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris. (PDF of the entire Proceedings; 14 MB) (PDF of the paper; 129 KB)

Bill, Brian D. 2011. Carbon and nitrogen uptake of toxigenic diatoms: Pseudo-nitzschia australis and Pseudo-nitzschia turgidula. M.Sc. Thesis, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA, USA, 118 p.

Blum, I., D.V. Subba Rao, Y. Pan, S. Swaminathan, and N.G. Adams. 2005. Development of statistical models for the prediction of the neurotoxin domoic acid levels in the pennate diatom Pseudonitzschia pungens f. multiseries utilizing data from cultures and natural blooms, p. 891-916. In: D.V. Subba Rao [ed.] Algal cultures, analogues of blooms, and applications. Science Publishers Inc. (PDF file in Researchgate; 1 MB)

Boissonneault, K.R., B.M. Henningsen, S.S. Bates, D.L. Robertson, S. Milton, J. Pelletier, D.A. Hogan, and D.E. Housman. 2013. Gene expression studies for the analysis of domoic acid production in the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. BMC Molec. Biol. 14: 25. (Open Access PDF file; 2.3 MB) (Publisher’s abstract and link to Open Access PDF file)

Boissonneault, Katie Rose. 2004. Gene discovery and expression profiling in the toxin-producing marine diatom, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (Hasle) Hasle. PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Wood Hole Oceanographic Institution Joint Program on Biological Oceanography, Cambridge, MA, USA, 181 p. (Link to non-printable PDF file - 10.2 MB) (Link to thesis abstract)

Bornet, B., E. Antoine, M. Bardouil, and C. Marcaillou-Le Baut. 2004. ISSR as new markers for genetic characterization and evaluation of relationships among phytoplankton. J. Appl. Phycol. 16: 285-290. (Publisher's abstract)

Bornet, B., E. Antoine, S. Françoise, and C. Marcaillou-Le Baut. 2005. Development of sequence characterized amplified region markers from intersimple sequence repeat fingerprints for the molecular detection of toxic phytoplankton Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae) and Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima (Bacillariophyceae) from French coastal waters. J. Phycol. 41: 704–711. (Publisher's abstract and link to pdf file)

Boroda, A.V., N.A. Aizdaicher, and N.A. Odintsova. 2014. The influence of ultra-low temperatures on marine microalgal cells. J. Appl. Phycol. 26: 387-397. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata and P. pungens] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Bouchouicha Smida, D., I. Sahraoui, B. Grami, H. Hadj Mabrouk, and A. Sakka Hlaili. 2014. Population dynamics of potentially harmful algal blooms in Bizerte Lagoon, Tunisia. Afr. J. Aquat. Sci. 39: 177-188. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Bouchouicha Smida, D., N. Lundholm, W.H.C.F. Kooistra, I. Sahraoui, M. Valeria, Y. Kotaki, M. Ellegaard, C. Lambert, H. Hadj Mabrouk, and A. Sakka Hlaili. 2014. Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Nitzschia bizertensis sp. nov. — A new domoic acid-producer. Harmful Algae 32: 49-63. (PDF file; 4.2 MB) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Bouchouicha-Smida, D., N. Lundholm, I. Sahraoui, C. Lambert, H. Hadj Mabrouk, and A. Sakka Hlaili. 2015. Detection of domoic acid in Mytilus galloprovincialis and Ostrea edulis linked to the presence of Nitzschia bizertensis in Bizerte Lagoon (SW Mediterranean). Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 165: 270–278. (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Bouchouicha, D. 2008. Suivi des diatomées Pseudo-nitzschia et des autres microalgues potentiellement nuisibles dans la lagune de Bizerte durant l'été et l'automne (2006). Mémoire de DEA, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte - Université du 7 Novembre à Carthage.

Bouchouicha, Donia. 2013. Dynamique saisonnières des microalgues nuisibles dans la lagune de Bizerte et identification d’une nouvelle espèce Nitzschia bizertensis sp. nov. productrice d’acide domoïque. Mémoire de thèse, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte - Université de Carthage. 231 p.

Bowers, H.A., R. Marin III, J.M. Birch, C.A. Scholin, and G.J. Doucette. 2016. Recovery and identification of Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) frustules from natural samples acquired using the environmental sample processor. J. Phycol. 52: 135-140. [mentions P. hasleana, P. arenysensis, P. fraudulenta] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Bresnan, E., A. Kraberg, S. Fraser, L. Brown, S. Hughes, and K.H. Wiltshire. 2015. Diversity and seasonality of Pseudo-nitzschia (Peragallo) at two North Sea time-series monitoring sites. Helgol. Mar. Res. 69: 193-204. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Brown, L. and E. Bresnan. 2008 Seasonal occurrence of Pseudo-nitzschia species in the west coast and Shetland Isles, Scotland, p. 165-167. In: Moestrup, Ø. [ed.] Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Harmful Algae. International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Copenhagen. (Download PDF of Proceedings; 12 MB) (To order the Proceedings)

Brunet, C., R. Chandrasekaran, L. Barra, V. Giovagnetti, F. Corato, and A.V. Ruban. 2014. Spectral radiation dependent photoprotective mechanism in the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata. PLoS ONE 9: e87015. (Open Access PDF file) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Buck, K.R., L. Uttal-Cooke, C.H. Pilskaln, D.L. Roelke, M.C. Villac, G.A. Fryxell, L. Cifuentes, and F.P. Chavez. 1992. Autecology of the diatom Pseudonitzschia australis Frenguelli, a domoic acid producer, from Monterey Bay, California. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 84: 293-302. (PDF file; 2.4 MB)

Budge, S.M. and C.C. Parrish. 1999. Lipid class and fatty acid composition of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and Pseudo-nitzschia pungens and effects of lipolytic enzyme deactivation. Phytochem. 52: 561-566. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Budge, S.M., C.C. Parrish, C.H. McKenzie, and R.J. Thompson. 1997. Fatty acid signature compounds of a toxic diatom and a toxic dinoflagellate. Bull. Aquacul. Assoc. Canada 97-2: 78-80.

Burić, Z., D. Viličić, K.C. Mihalić, M. Carić, K. Kralj, and N. Ljubešić, N. 2008. Pseudo-nitzschia blooms in the Zrmanja River estuary (Eastern Adriatic Sea). Diatom Res. 23: 51-63. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

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Busch, J.A., A.D. Cembella, M. Fernández-Tejedor, J. Diogéne, and O. Zielinski. 2014. Comparative studies on phytoplankton dynamics and bio-optics for HAB monitoring in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean, p. 59-62. In: Kim, H.G., B. Reguera, G.M. Hallegraeff, C.K. Lee, M.S. Han, and J.K. Choi. [eds.] Harmful Algae 2012, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Harmful Algae. International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae, Maple Design, Busan, Korea. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (PDF file of accepted paper; 294 KB) (PDF of Proceedings; 6.4 MB)

Busch, J.A., K.B. Andree, J. Diogène, M. Fernández-Tejedor, K. Toebe, U. John, B. Krock, U. Tillmann, and A.D. Cembella. 2016. Toxigenic algae and associated phycotoxins in two coastal embayments in the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean). Harmful Algae 55: 191-201. [discusses domoic acid and Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima, P. calliantha, P. galaxiae, P. arenysensis] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Bushati, M., E. Koni, M. Bregaj, L. Kashta, and A. Miho. 2012. Horizontal structure of potentially toxic algae and their toxins production. J. Instit. Alb-Shkenca 1: 13-19. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima and P. seriata, and domoic acid in Mytilus galloprovincialis, in Albania] (PDF file; 805 KB)

Butrón, A., E. Orive, and I. Madariaga. 2011. Potential risk of harmful algae transport by ballast waters: the case of Bilbao Harbour. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 62: 747-757. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia species] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Cabrales-Talavera, Guadalupe. 2010. Distribución espacial y temporal de diatomeas del género Pseudo-nitzschia spp y la concentración de ácido domoico en la región de la Bahía de Todos Santos, B.C., México. Master's Thesis. Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada. Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico. (Information on thesis)

Cajaraville, M.P., E. Orive, F. Villate, Aitor Laza-Martínez, I. Uriarte, L. Garmendia, M. Ortiz-Zarragoitia, S. Seoane, A. Iriarte, and I. Marigómez. 2016. Health status of the Bilbao estuary: a review of data from a multidisciplinary approach. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 179: 124-134. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia arenysensis] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Calu, G., V. Martin-Jezequel, E. Lefau, V. Sechet, P. Lassus, P. Weigel, and Z. Amzil. 2009. The influence of nitrogen speciation on growth and toxicity of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. pungens in batch and continuous cultures. In: P. Lassus [ed.] 7th International Conference on Molluscan Shellfish Safety. Éditions Quæ, Nantes, France, 7 p. (PDF file in ResearchGate)

Calu, Guillaume. 2011. Contribution à l'étude de la toxicité de Pseudo-nitzschia: régulation de la production d'acide domoïque et synthèse d'analogues chimiques. PhD Thesis, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France, 212 p. (Link to announcement of thesis defence; 5 July 2011)

Cangelosi, G.A., A.M. Hamlin, R. Marin III, and C.A. Scholin. 1997. Detection of stable pre-rRNA in toxigenic Pseudo-nitzschia species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63: 4859-4865. (PDF file outside DFO's website)

Cao, M., X.-L. Yuan, and G. Bi. 2016. Complete sequence and analysis of plastid genomes of Pseudo nitzschia multiseries (Baciuariophyta). Mitochondrial DNA 27: 2897-2898. (PDF file of Corrigendum - to correct the title) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Carlson, M.C.G., N.D. McCary, T.S. Leach, and G. Rocap. 2016. Pseudo-nitzschia challenged with co-occurring viral communities display diverse infection phenotypes. Front. Microbiol. 7: 527. [includes P. pungens, P. multiseries, P. australis, P. delicatissima, P. americana, P. hasleana] (Open Access PDF file; 1.4 MB) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Caron, D.A., A.G. Gellene, J. Smith, E.L. Seubert, V. Campbell, G.S. Sukhatme, B. Seegers, B.H. Jones, A.A.Y. Lie, R. Terrado, M.D.A. Howard, R.M. Kudela, K. Hayashi, Ryan, J. Birch, E. Demir-Hilton, K. Yamahara, C. Scholin, M. Mengel, and G. Robertson. 2017. Response of phytoplankton and bacterial biomass during a wastewater effluent diversion into nearshore coastal waters. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 186, Part B: 223-236. [mentions Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and domoic acid] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Caroppo, C., F. Cerino, R. Auriemma, and T. Cibic. 2016. Phytoplankton dynamics with a special emphasis on harmful algal blooms in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy). Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 23: 12691-12706. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia cf. calliantha, P. cf. fraudulenta, P. cf. galaxiae, P. cf. multistriata, and ASP] (PDF file from ResearchGate) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Caroppo, C., R. Congestri, L. Bracchini, and P. Albertano. 2005. On the presence of Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha Lundholm, Moestrup et Hasle and Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima (Cleve) Heiden in the Southern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). J. Plankton Res. 27: 763-774. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Casteleyn, G., F. Leliaert, T. Backeljau, A.-E. Debeer, Y. Kotaki, L. Rhodes, N. Lundholm, K. Sabbe, and W. Vyverman. 2010. Limits to gene flow in a cosmopolitan marine planktonic diatom. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107: 12952-12957. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia pungens] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Casteleyn, G., K.M. Evans, T. Backeljau, S. D'hondt, V.A. Chepurnov, K. Sabbe, and W. Vyverman. 2009. Lack of population genetic structuring in the marine planktonic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (Bacillariophyceae) in a heterogeneous area in the Southern Bight of the North Sea. Mar. Biol. 156: 1149–1158. [discusses P. pungens var. pungens] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Casteleyn, G., N.G. Adams, P. Vanormelingen, A.-E. Debeer, K. Sabbe, and W. Vyverman. 2009. Natural hybrids in the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (Bacillariophyceae): genetic and morphological evidence. Protist 160: 343-354. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Casteleyn, G., V.A. Chepurnov, F. Leliaert, D.G. Mann, S.S. Bates, N. Lundholm, L. Rhodes, K. Sabbe, and W. Vyverman. 2008. Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (Bacillariophyceae): a cosmopolitan diatom species? Harmful Algae 7: 241-257. (PDF file outside DFO's website) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Casteleyn, Griet. 2009. Species structure and biogeography of Pseudo-nitzschia pungens. PhD thesis. Laboratory of Protistology & Aquatic Ecology, Biology Department, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. 201 pp. (Information)

Cerino F., L. Orsini, D. Sarno, C. Dell'Aversano, L. Tartaglione, and A. Zingone. 2005. The alternation of different morphotypes in the seasonal cycle of the toxic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia galaxiae. Harmful Algae 4: 33-48. (PDF file; 515 KB) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Chai, Y., W.-J. Deng, X. Qin, and X. Xu. 2017. Occurrence of four species of algae in the marine water of Hong Kong. Mar. Pollut. Bull. (in press) [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha, P. multistriata ] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Chavarría y, A.M.G. and E.A. Sogamoso. 2010. Distribución y abundancia de diatomeas del género Pseudo-nitzschia en condición ce El Niño 2007 sobre la cuenca Pacífica Colombiana. Bol. Invest. Mar. Cost. 39: 25-39. (PDF file; 490 KB)

Chen, J., H. Wang, A.Q. Yang, R.R. Si, and W.C. Guan. 2017. Short-term and diurnal temperature changes alter the response of harmful algal blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia pungens to solar ultraviolet radiation. New Zealand J. Mar. Freshwater Res. (in press) (Publisher’s abstract and link to Open Access PDF file)

Chen, J., N. Xu, Z. Wang, W. Huang, L. Xie, T. Jiang, and Y. Qi. 2002. Dynamics of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and environmental factors in Daya Bay, the South China Sea. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae 22: 743-748. (in Chinese) (English abstract in European Pubmed Central)

Chen, Y.-h., Gao, Y.-h. Chen, C.-p., Liang, J.-r., Sun, L., Zhen, Y., and Qiao, L. 2016. Seasonal variations of phytoplankton assemblages and its relation to environmental variables in a scallop culture sea area of Bohai Bay, China. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 113: 362-370 [Discusses Pseudo-nitzschia pungens] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Cheng, J.-F., Y.-Z. Qi, N. Xu., T.-J. Jing, and S.-H. Lu. 2005. Pseudo-nitzschia bloom and its ecological role in the biological community in the Daya Bay, the South China Sea. Acta Oceanol. Sinica. 27: 114-119. (in Chinese) (Publisher’s abstract)

Chepurnov, V.A., D.G. Mann, K. Sabbe, K. Vannerum, G. Casteleyn, E. Verleyen, L. Peperzak, and W. Vyverman. 2005. Sexual reproduction, mating system, chloroplast dynamics and abrupt cell size reduction in Pseudo-nitzschia pungens from the North Sea (Bacillariophyta). Eur. J. Phycol. 40: 379-395. (PDF file; 800 KB) (Publisher's abstract)

Cho, E.S., H.J. Hur, H.S. Byun, S.G. Lee, L.L. Rhodes, C.S. Jeong, and J.G. Park. 2002. Monthly monitoring of domoic acid producer Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (Hasle) Hasle using species-specific DNA probes and WGA lectins and abundances of Pseudo-nitzschia species (Bacillariophyceae) from Chinhae Bay, Korea. Bot. Mar. 45: 364-372. [discusses P. multiseries, P. pungens, P. multistriata, P. delicatissima, P. cuspidata, P. subfraudulenta, P. granii, P. fraudulenta, P. subpacifica] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Cho, E.S., J.G. Park, B.C. Oh, and Y.C. Cho. 2001. The application of species specific DNA-targeted probes and fluorescently tagged lectin to differentiate several species of Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillophyceae) in Chinhae Bay, Korea. Scientia Marina 65: 207-214. [discusses P. multistriata, P. subfraudulenta, P. pungens, P. multiseries, P. cuspidata, P. subpacifica, P. delicatissima] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

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Cho, E.S., Y. Kotaki, and J.G. Park. 2001. The comparison between toxic Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (Hasle) Hasle and non-toxic P. pungens (Grunow) Hasle isolated from Jinhae Bay, Korea. Algae 16: 275-285. (Publisher's link to free PDF file)

Churro, C.I., C.C. Carreira, F.J. Rodrigues, S.C. Craveiro, A.J. Calado, G. Casteleyn, and N. Lundholm. 2009. Diversity and abundance of potentially toxic Pseudo-nitzschia Peragallo in Aveiro coastal lagoon, Portugal and description of a new variety, P. pungens var. aveirensis var. nov. Diatom Res. 24: 35-62. (PDF file in ResearchGate; 4.9 MB) (Publisher's abstract and linki to PDF file)

Claquin, P.S.N. Longphuirt, P. Fouillaron, P. Huonnic, O. Ragueneau, C. Klein, and A. Leynaert. 2010. Effects of simulated benthic fluxes on phytoplankton dynamic and photosynthetic parameters in a mesocosm experiment (Bay of Brest, France). Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 86: 93-101. [contains information on Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Cochlan, W.P., J. Herndon, and R.M. Kudela. 2008. Inorganic and organic nitrogen uptake by the toxigenic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia australis (Bacillariophyceae). Harmful Algae 8: 111-118. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Cohen, N.R., K.A. Ellis, W.G. Burns, R.H. Lampe, N. Schuback, Z. Johnson, S. Sañudo-Wilhelmy, and A. Marchetti. 2017. Iron and vitamin interactions in marine diatom isolates and natural assemblages of the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr. 62: 2076–2096. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia granii] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Congestri, R., S. Polizzano, and P. Albertano. 2008. Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia populations from the Middle Tyrrhenian Sea (Mediterranean Sea, Italy), p. 197-210. In: V. Evangelista, L. Barsanti, A.M. Frassanito, V. Passarelli, and P. Gualtieri [eds.] Algal toxins: nature, occurrence, effect and detection. NATO Science for Peace and Security. Series A: Chemistry and Biology. Springer Netherlands. (Access to book via Scribd) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Cormier, P. 1998. Growth, physiology, and nitrogen uptake of Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, and domoic acid production of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries isolates from eastern Prince Edward Island. M.Sc. Thesis, Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick, Canada, 173 p.

Couture J.Y., M. Levasseur, E. Bonneau, C. Desjardins, G. Sauvé, S.S. Bates, C. Léger, R. Gagnon, and S. Michaud. 2001. Variations spatiales et temporelles des concentrations d'acide domoïque dans les mollusques et des abondances de Pseudo-nitzschia spp. dans le St-Laurent de 1998 à 2000. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat. 2375: vii + 24 p. (in French; English translation, above) (PDF file in DFO WAVES; French version)

Couture, J.Y., M. Levasseur, E. Bonneau, C. Desjardins, G. Sauvé, S.S. Bates, C. Léger, R. Gagnon, and S. Michaud. 2001. Spatial and temporal variation of domoic acid in molluscs and of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms in the St. Lawrence from 1998 to 2000. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2375: vii + 24 p. (English translation of the French version, below) (PDF file in DFO WAVES; English version)

Cusack, C., H. Mouriño, M.T. Moita, and J. Silke. 2015. Modelling Pseudo-nitzschia events off southwest Ireland. J. Sea Res. 105: 30-41. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Cusack, C., R. Raine, and J.W. Patching. 2004. Occurrence of species from the genus Pseudo-nitzschia Peragallo in Irish waters. Proc. Royal Irish Acad. 104B: 55-74. (PDF file in Academia.edu) (PDF file in JSTOR)

Cusack, C., T. Dabrowski, K. Lyons, A. Berry, G. Westbrook, R. Salas, C. Duffy, G. Nolan, and J. Silke. 2016. Harmful algal bloom forecast system for SW Ireland. Part II: Are operational oceanographic models useful in a HAB warning. Harmful Algae 53: 86-101. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Cusack, C.K. 2002. The diatom Pseudo-nitzschia in Irish waters. PhD Thesis, National University of Ireland, Galway, 380 p. (PDF file; 22.6 MB)

Cusack, C.K., S.S. Bates, M.A. Quilliam, J.W. Patching, and R. Raine. 2002. Confirmation of domoic acid production by Pseudo-nitzschia australis (Bacillariophyceae) isolated from Irish waters. J. Phycol. 38: 1106-1112. (Full text in ResearchGate) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Cziesla, C.A. 1999. The transport and distribution of the toxic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. in the Coos Bay Estuary and the adjacent continental shelf. M.Sc. Thesis. University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, USA.

D’Alelio, D. and M.V. Ruggiero. 2015. Interspecific plastidial recombination in the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia. J. Phycol. 51: 1024–1028. (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

D’Alelio, D., A. Amato, A. Luedeking, and M. Montresor. 2009. Sexual and vegetative phases in the planktonic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata. Harmful Algae 8: 225-232. (PDF file from Academia.edu) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

D’Alelio, D., A. Amato, W.H.C.F. Kooistra, G. Procaccini, R. Casotti, and M. Montresor. 2009. Internal transcribed spacer polymorphism in Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata (Bacillariophyceae) in the Gulf of Naples: recent divergence or intraspecific hybridization? Protist 160: 9-20. (PDF file in Academia.edu) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

D’Alelio, D., M.R. d'Alcalá , L. Dubroca, D. Sarno, A. Zingone, and M. Montresor. 2010. The time for sex: a biennial life cycle in a marine planktonic diatom. Limnol. Oceanogr. 55: 106-114. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata] (Publisher's Free Access PDF file)

D’Alelio, Domenico. 2008. The life cycle of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata: experimental and in situ approaches. PhD Thesis. University of Messina, Italy, 172 p.

d’Ippolito, G., A. Sardo, D. Paris, F.M. Vella, M.G. Adelfi, P. Botte, C. Gallo, and A. Fontana. 2015. Potential of lipid metabolism in marine diatoms for biofuel production. Biotechnol. Biofuels 8:28. DOI 10.1186/s13068-015-0212-4 [mentions Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima] (Publisher’s abstract and link to Open Access PDF file)

d’Ippolito, G., N. Lamari, M. Montresor, G. Romano, A. Cutignano, A. Gerecht, G. Cimino, and A. Fontana. 2009. 15S-Lipoxygenase metabolism in the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima. New Phytol. 183: 1064-1071. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Dale, B. and M. Murphy. 2014. A retrospective appraisal of the importance of high-resolution sampling for harmful algal blooms: lessons from long-term phytoplankton monitoring at Sherkin Island, S.W. Ireland. Harmful Algae 40: 23-33. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia seriata] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Dao, H.V, V.B. Phan, S.T. Teng, H. Uchida, C.P. Leaw, P.T. Lim, T. Suzuki, and K.X. Pham. 2015. Pseudo-nitzschia fukuyoi (Bacillariophyceae), a domoic acid-producing species from Nha Phu Bay, Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam. Fish. Sci. 81: 533-539. (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Dao, V.H., Y. Takata, T. Omura, N.T. Dung, N.T. Hong, S. Sato, Y. Fukuyo, and M. Kodama. 2009. Domoic acid in small-sized plankton in Nha Phu Bay, Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam. La Mer 46: 117-120. (Open Access PDF file; 149 KB)

Davidovich, N.A. and S.S. Bates. 1998. Patterns of sexual reproduction in the pennate diatoms Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. pseudodelicatissima, p.152-155. In: B. Reguera, J. Blanco, M.L. Fernández, and T. Wyatt [eds.] Harmful algae. Xunta de Galicia and the IOC of UNESCO, Paris. (Website to download the Proceedings)

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Davidovich, N.A. and S.S. Bates. 1998. Sexual reproduction in the pennate diatoms Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. pseudodelicatissima (Bacillariophyceae). J. Phycol. 34: 126-137. (PDF file in ResearchGate; 668 KB) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Davidovich, N.A. and S.S. Bates. 2002. Pseudo-nitzschia life cycle and the sexual diversity of clones in diatom populations, p. 27-30. In: E. Garcés, A. Zingone, B. Dale, M. Montresor, and B. Reguera [eds.] Proceedings of the LIFEHAB Workshop: Life history of microalgal species causing harmful algal blooms. Commission of the European Community. (PDF file outside DFO's website; link to entire Proceedings - 8 MB)

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Davidson, K. and J. Fehling. 2006. Modelling the influence of silicon and phosphorus limitation on the growth and toxicity of Pseudo-nitzschia seriata. African J. Mar. Sci. 28: 357-360. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Delaney, J.A., R.M. Ulrich, and J.H. Paul. 2011. Detection of the toxic marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries using the RuBisCO small subunit (rbcS) gene in two real-time RNA amplification formats. Harmful Algae 11: 54-64. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Delaney, Jennifer A. 2010. Molecular detection of the toxic marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. Master’s thesis, University of South Florida, 100 p. (Abstract and link to Open Access PDF file) (Open Access PDF file; 14 MB)

Delegrange, A., D. Vincent, M. Duret, and R. Amara. 2015. Mussels as a mitigation tool to prevent phytoplankton spring bloom noxious effects on farmed fish? A test-case experiment. Aquacult. Engin. 66: 52–61. [discusses domoic acid and Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Dhar, B.C., L. Cimarelli, K.S. Singh, L. Brandi, A. Brandi, C. Puccinelli, S. Marcheggiani, and R. Spurio. 2015. Molecular detection of a potentially toxic diatom species. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12: 4921-4941. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and Amphora coffeaeformis] (Full text in ResearchGate) (Publisher's abstract and link to Open Access PDF file)

Di Dato, V., F. Musacchia, G. Petrosino, S. Patil, M. Montresor, R. Sanges, and M.I. Ferrante. 2015. Transcriptome sequencing of three Pseudo-nitzschia species reveals comparable gene sets and the presence of nitric oxide synthase genes in diatoms. Sci. Rep. 5: 12329. (Publisher's abstract and link to Open Access PDF file)

Díaz, P.A., B. Reguera, and M. Ruiz-Villarreal. 2014. Pseudo-nitzschia australis blooms are not always toxic. Harmful Algae News, No. 48, p. 10-11. (PDF file of HAN No. 48; 9 MB)

Díaz, P.A., B. Reguera, L. Velo-Suarez, I. Ramilo, P. Gentien, M. Lunven, L. Fernand, R. Raine, and M. Ruiz-Villarreal. 2014. Spring-neap tidal and circadian variability in the distribution of two groups of Pseudo-nitzschia species in an upwelling-influenced estuary, p. 93-96. In: Kim, H.G., B. Reguera, G.M. Hallegraeff, C.K. Lee, M.S. Han, and J.K. Choi. [eds.] Harmful Algae 2012, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Harmful Algae. International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae, Maple Design, Busan, Korea. (PDF file of accepted paper; 476 KB) (PDF of Proceedings; 6.4 MB)

Díaz, P.A., M. Ruiz-Villarreal, L. Velo-Suárez, I. Ramilo, P. Gentien, M. Lunven, L. Fernand, R. Raine, and B. Reguera. 2014. Tidal and wind-event variability and the distribution of two groups of Pseudo-nitzschia species in an upwelling-influenced ría. Deep-Sea Res. II 101: 16-179. [discusses P. delicatissima, P. seriata size groups; with identification of P. seriata] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Dickman, M. 1996. A search for domoic acid producing diatoms in Hong Kong waters, p. 159-162. In: T. Yasumoto, Y. Oshima, and Y. Fukuyo [eds.] Harmful and toxic algal blooms. Intergov. Oceanogr. Comm., UNESCO, Paris.

Dickman, M. and T. Glenwright. 1997. A comparison of marine planktonic and sediment core diatoms in Hong Kong with emphasis on Pseudo-nitzschia. Hydrobiologia 352: 149-358. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Diercks, S. 2003. Development and adoption of species level probes for the toxic algae Alexandrium minutum and Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries for the use in a hand held device. Hochschule Bremen, 65 S. (Electronic Publication Information Center, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research)

Diercks, S., K. Metfies, and L.K. Medlin. 2008. Molecular probe sets for the detection of toxic algae for use in sandwich hybridization formats J. Plankton Res. 30: 439-448. [discusses probes for P. multiseries, P. pungens, P. australis and P. seriata] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Dittami, S.M., V. Hostyeva, E.S. Egge, J.U. Kegel, W. Eikrem, and B. Edvardsen. 2013. Seasonal dynamics of harmful algae in outer Oslofjorden monitored by microarray, qPCR, and microscopy. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 20: 6719-732. [discusses several species of Pseudo-nitzschia] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Dittami, S.M., Y. Pazos, M., Laspra, and L.K. Medlin. 2013. Microarray testing for the presence of toxic algae monitoring programme in Galicia (NW Spain). Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 20: 6778-6793. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia and domoic acid] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Doan-Nhu, H., M.A. Nguyen Thi, and T.G. Nguyen-Ngoc. 2008. Pseudo-nitzschia in south central coastal waters of Vietnam: growth and occurrence related to temperature and salinity, p. 29-32. In: Moestrup, Ø. [ed.] Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Harmful Algae. International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Copenhagen. (Download PDF of Proceedings; 12 MB) (To order the Proceedings)

Dortch, Q., R. Robichaux, S. Pool, D. Milsted, G. Mire, N.N. Rabalais, T.M. Soniat, G.A. Fryxell, R.E. Turner, and M.L. Parsons. 1997. Abundance and vertical flux of Pseudo-nitzschia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 146: 249-264. (Open Access PDF file; 1.6 MB) (Publisher's abstract)

Doucette, G.J., K.L. King, A.E. Thessen, and Q. Dortch. 2008. The effect of salinity on domoic acid production by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. Nova Hedwigia, Beiheft 133: 31-46. (Publisher's table of contents)

Douglas, D.J. 1991. Axenic cultures of the marine diatom Nitzschia pungens f. multiseries produce the neurotoxin domoic acid. Appl. Phycol. Forum 8: 10.

Douglas, D.J. and S.S. Bates. 1992. Production of domoic acid, a neurotoxic amino acid, by an axenic culture of the marine diatom Nitzschia pungens f. multiseries Hasle. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 49: 85-90.

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The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF file; 506 KB)

Douglas, D.J., D. Landry, and S.E. Douglas. 1994. Genetic relatedness of toxic and nontoxic isolates of the marine pennate diatom Pseudonitzschia (Bacillariophyceae): phytogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA sequences. Nat.l Toxins 2: 166-174. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Douglas, D.J., S.S. Bates, L.A. Bourque, and R. Selvin. 1993. Domoic acid production by axenic and non-axenic cultures of the pennate diatom Nitzschia pungens f. multiseries, p. 595-600. In: T.J. Smayda and Y. Shimizu [eds.] Toxic phytoplankton blooms in the sea. Elsevier Sci. Publ. B.V., Amsterdam.

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The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF file; 246 KB)

Douglas, D.J., U.P. Ramsey, J.A. Walter, and J.L.C. Wright. 1992. Biosynthesis of the neurotoxin domoic acid by the marine diatom Nitzschia pungens forma multiseries, determined with [13C]-labelled precursors and nuclear magnetic resonance. J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1992: 714-716. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Downes-Tettmar, N., S. Rowland, C. Widdicombe, M. Woodward, and C. Llewellyn. 2013. Seasonal variation in Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and domoic acid in the Western English Channel. Cont. Shelf Res. 53: 40–49. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Downes-Tettmar, Naomi. 2012. Factors that impact Pseudo-nitzschia spp. occurrence, growth, and toxin production. PhD Thesis, Plymouth University, Plymouth, UK, 282 p. (Abstract) (PDF file; 2.87 MB)

Drakulović, D., S. Gvozdenović, D. Joksimović, M. Mandić, and B. Pestorić. 2017. Toxic and potentially toxic phytoplankton in the mussel and fish farms in the transitional area of Montenegrin Coast (south-eastern Adriatic Sea). Turkish J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 17: 885-900. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (PDF file of accepted paper) (Publisher’s website and link to PDF file)

Du, X. and W.T. Peterson. 2014. Seasonal cycle of phytoplankton community composition in the coastal upwelling system off central Oregon in 2009. Estuar. Coasts 37: 299-311. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia australis complex species] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Du, X., W. Peterson, J. Fisher, M. Hunter, and J. Peterson. 2016. Initiation and development of a toxic and persistent Pseudo-nitzschia bloom off the Oregon coast in spring/summer 2015. PLoS ONE 11: e0163977. (Open Access PDF file; 2.1 MB) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Durkin, C.A., A. Marchetti, S.J. Bender, T. Truong, R. Morales, T. Mock, and E.V. Armbrust. 2012. Frustule-related gene transcription and the influence of diatom community composition on silica precipitation in an iron-limited environment. Limnol. Oceanogr. 57: 1619-1633. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Dursun, F., S. Ünlü, S. Tas, and T. Yurdun. 2017. Domoic acid variations in response to environmental conditions in an eutrophic estuary, Golden Horn (Turkey). Turkish J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 17: 653-662. (PDF file; 1 MB) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Dursun, F., T. Yurdun, and S. Ünlü. 2016. The first observation of domoic acid in plankton net samples from the Sea of Marmara, Turkey. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 96: 70-75. [includes Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima, P. fraudulenta, P. pungens] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Eberhart, B.-T.L., B.D. Bill, and V.L. Trainer. 2012. Remote sampling of harmful algal blooms: A case study on the Washington State coast. Harmful Algae 19: 39-45. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia and domoic acid] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Ehrman, J.M. and I. Kaczmarska. 2004. A virtual instrument metaphor for object identification: an example application using toxic diatoms. Limnol. Oceanogr. Bull. 13: 1-4. [Describes software (dmfTable) to help identify different species of Pseudo-nitzschia, based on SEM morphometrics; Digital Microscopy Facility, Mount Allison University, Sackville. NB, Canada](PDF file of poster presented at the 8th Canadian Workshop on Harmful Algae, Moncton, NB, Canada, May 2003) (Link to information on dmfTable) (PDF file of Limnol. Oceanogr. Bull.; 2.7 MB)

El-Kassas, H.Y. and G.S. Mahmoud. 2016. Studies on spatio-temporal dynamics of phytoplankton in Burullus Lagoon, southern Mediterranean coast, Egypt. Egypt. J. Exp. Biol. (Bot.) 10: 255-266. [includes Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima] (PDF file; 724 KB)

El-Sabaawi, R. and P.J. Harrison. 2006. Interactive effects of irradiance and temperature on the photosynthetic physiology of the pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschia granii (Bacillariophyceae) from the northeast subarctic Pacific. J. Phycol. 42: 778-785. (Editor's note: P. granii is non-toxic) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Elandaloussi, L., R. Venail, S. Quijano-Scheggia, M. Fernández-Tejedor, E. Mallat, J. Diogène, E. Garcés, J. Camp, and K. Andree. 2008. Molecular tools for the identification of Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha and P. delicatissima in the Ebre Delta, Spain, p. 62-64. In: Moestrup, Ø. [ed.] Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Harmful Algae. International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Copenhagen. (Download PDF of Proceedings; 12 MB) (To order the Proceedings)

Elferink, S., S. Neuhaus, S. Wohlrab, K. Toebe, D. Voß, M. Gottschling, N. Lundholm, B. Krock, B.P. Koch, O. Zielinski, A. Cembella, and U. John. 2017. Molecular diversity patterns among various phytoplankton size-fractions in West Greenland in late summer. Deep-Sea Res. Part I 121: 54-69. [discusses domoic acid and Pseudo-nitzschia] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Ellis, K.A., N.R. Cohen, C. Moreno, and A. Marchetti. 2017. Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase distribution and influence on vitamin B12 growth requirements in marine diatoms. Protist 168: 32-47. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia granii] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Recent Update - Added: October 16, 2017: 

Ellis, Kelsey. 2015. The coeffects of vitamin B12 and iron on marine diatoms. Master’s Thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 85 p. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia granii] (PDF file; 2.0 MB)

Engesmo, Anette. 2010. Pseudo-nitzschia og Fragilariopsis (Bacillariophyceae) i Antarktis og Arktis: Utbredelsesmønster, morfologi og genetisk variasjon. Master’s Thesis. University of Oslo, 108 p. (in Norwegean) (PDF; 6.6 MB)

Ennaffah, B., E. Nafil, and A. Chafik. 2012. First report of Pseudo-nitzschia australis on Moroccan Atlantic coast and toxicity in Moroccan shellfish. Harmful Algae News, No. 21. p. 4. (PDF file of HAN No. 45; 8.4 MB)

Escalera, L., Y. Pazos, Á. Moroño, and B. Reguera. 2006. Noctiluca scintillans may act as a vector of toxigenic microalgae. Harmful Algae 6: 317-320. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Estrada, M., M. Delgado, D. Blasco, M. Latasa, A.M. Cabello, V. Benítez-Barrios, E. Fraile-Nuez, P. Mozetič, and M. Vidal. 2016. Phytoplankton across tropical and subtropical regions of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. PLoS One 11: e0151699. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher’s abstract and link to Open Access PDF file)

Evans, K.M. and P.K. Hayes. 2004. Microsatellite markers for the cosmopolitan marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia pungens. Mol. Ecol. Notes 4: 125-126. (Publisher's Abstract and link to PDF file)

Evans, K.M., S.F. Kühn, and P.K. Hayes. 2005. High levels of genetic diversity and low levels of genetic differentiation in North Sea Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (Bacillariophyceae) populations. J. Phycol. 41: 506-514. (Publisher's abstract and link to pdf file)

Evans, K.M., S.S. Bates, L.K. Medlin, and P.K. Hayes. 2004. Microsatellite marker development and genetic variation in the toxic marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (Bacillariophyceae). (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Evans, N.R., D.L. Woodruff, and V.L. Trainer. 2005. Development of coastal upwelling edge detection algorithms associated with harmful algal blooms off the Washington coast using sea surface temperature imagery. In: R.J. Frouin, M. Babin, and S. Sathyendranath [eds.] Remote sensing of the coastal oceanic environment, Proceedings of SPIE, Volume 5885.

Facca, C., D. Bilaničovà, G. Pojana, A. Sfriso, and A. Marcomini. 2014. Harmful algae records in Venice Lagoon and in Po River Delta (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy). The Sci. World J. 2014: Article ID 806032, 11 p. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima and domoic acid] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Fawcett, A., G.C. Pitcher, S. Bernard, A.D. Cembella, and R.M. Kudela. 2007. Contrasting wind patterns and toxigenic phytoplankton in the southern Benguela upwelling system. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 348: 19-31. [shows an association of particulate domoic acid with concentrations of Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Fehling, J. 2004. Diversity, ecology and domoic acid production of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. in Scottish waters. PhD thesis, The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK. 309 p. (Abstract)

Fehling, J., D.H. Green, K. Davidson, C.J. Bolch, and S.S. Bates. 2004. Domoic acid production by Pseudo-nitzschia seriata (Bacillariophyceae) in Scottish waters. J. Phycol. 40: 622-630. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Fehling, J., K. Davidson, and S.S. Bates. 2005. Growth dynamics of non-toxic Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima and toxic P. seriata (Bacillariophyceae) under simulated spring and summer photoperiods. Harmful Algae 4: 763-769. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Fehling, J., K. Davidson, C. Bolch, and P. Tett. 2006. Seasonality of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) in western Scottish waters. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 323: 91-105. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Fehling, J., K. Davidson, C.J. Bolch, and S.S. Bates. 2004. Growth and domoic acid production by Pseudo-nitzschia seriata (Bacillariophyceae) under phosphate and silicate limitation. J. Phycol. 40: 674-683. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Fehling, J., K. Davidson, C.J.S. Bolch, T.D. Brand, and B.E. Narayanaswamy. 2012. The relationship between phytoplankton distribution and water column characteristics in north west European shelf sea waters. PLoS One 7(3): e34098. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034098 [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia species] (Open Access PDF file; 2 MB) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Fernandes, L.F. and F.P. Brandini. 2010. The potentially toxic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia H. Peragallo in the Paraná and Santa Catarina States, Southern Brazil. Iheringia, Série Bot. 65: 47-62. [discusses P. australis, P. calliantha, P. multiseries, P. pungens, P. pungens var. cingulata, P. linea] (PDF file; 3.5 MB)

Fernandes, L.F., K.A. Hubbard, M. Richlen, J. Smith, S.S. Bates, J. Ehrman, C. Léger, L.L. Mafra, Jr., D. Kulis, M. Quilliam, D. Erdner, K. Libera, L. McCauley, and D.M. Anderson. 2014. Diversity and toxicity of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia Peragallo in the Gulf of Maine, Northwestern, Atlantic Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. II 103: 139–162. [discusses P. americana, P. fraudulenta, P. subpacifica, P. heimii, P. pungens, P. seriata, P. delicatissima, P. turgidula; P. sp. GOM is P. plurisecta; see Teng et al. 2014; Harmful Algae 34: 17-28.] (PDF file via ResearchGate) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Fernandes, L.F., K.P. Cavalcante, L.A.O. Proença, and M.A. Schramm. 2013. Blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima and P. calliantha, and associated domoic acid accumulation in shellfish from the South Brazilian coast. Diatom Res. 28: 381-393. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Ferrario, M., S. Licea, C.F. Balestrini, and G. Ferreyra. 2004. Species of Pseudo-nitzschia in the Drake Passage (54°-61°S to 46°-64°W), p. 434-436. In: K.A. Steidinger, J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo [eds.] Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris. (PDF file) (Website for all PDF files of the Proceedings)

Ferrario, M.E. and S. Licea. 2006. Species of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyta) in Antarctic waters: morphology and distribution, p. 1-16. In: R.M. Crawford, B. Moss, D.G. Mann, and H.R. Preisig. Nova Hedwigia, Beiheft 130. Gebrueder Borntraeger Verlagsbuchhandlung, Science Publishers, Stuttgart. [discusses P. heimii, P. lineola, P. subcurvata, P. turgidula, P. turgiduloides] (Link to Table of Contents and purchase information) (PDF file; 6.7 MB)

Ferrario, M.E., E.A. Scar, C. Castanos, and F. Hinz. 1999. Potentially toxic species of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia in Argentinean coastal waters. Nova Hedwigia 68: 131-147. (PDF file in ResearchGate; 3.5 MB)

Fitzpatrick, E., D.A. Caron, and A. Schnetzer. 2010. Development and environmental application of a genus-specific quantitative PCR approach for Pseudo-nitzschia species. Mar. Biol. 157: 1161-1169. (PDF file) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Forbes, E. and G.M. Hallegraef. 2002. Transport of potentially toxic Pseudo-nitzschia diatom species via ballast water, p. 509-520. In: J. John [ed.] Proceedings of the 15th international diatom symposium, Perth, Australia 28 September - 2 October 1998. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, Germany. ISBN 3-904144-81-2 (Information)

Forbes, J.R. and K.L. Denman. 1991. Distribution of Nitzschia pungens in coastal waters of British Columbia. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48: 960-967. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Fraga, S., M.J. Alverez, Á. Míguez, M.L. Fernández, E. Costas, and V. López-Rodas. 1998. Pseudo-nitzschia species isolated from Galician waters: toxicity, DNA content and lectin binding assay, p. 270-273. In: B. Reguera, J. Blanco, M.L. Fernández, and T. Wyatt [eds.] Harmful algae. Xunta de Galicia and the IOC of UNESCO, Paris. (Website to download the Proceedings)

Fritz, L., M.A. Quilliam, J.L.C. Wright, A. Beale, and T.M. Work. 1992. An outbreak of domoic acid poisoning attributed to the pennate diatom Pseudonitzschia australis. J. Phycol. 28: 439-442. (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Fryxell, G.A., M.E. Reap, and D.L. Valencic. 1990. Nitzschia pungens Grunow f. multiseries Hasle: observations of a known neurotoxic diatom. Nova Hedwigia, Beiheft 100: 171-188.

Archived File

The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF file; 831 MB)

Fryxell, G.A., S.A. Garza, and D.L. Roelke. 1991. Auxospore formation in an Antarctic clone of Nitzschia subcurvata Hasle. Diatom Res. 6: 235-245. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Fuentes, M.S. and G.H. Wikfors. 2013. Control of domoic acid toxin expression in Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries by copper and silica: relevance to mussel aquaculture in New England (USA). Mar. Environ. Res. 83: 23–28. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Fuentes, S., G.H. Wikfors, and S. Meseck. 2014. Silicon deficiency induces alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in cultures of four marine diatoms. Estuaries and Coasts 37: 312-324. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Galván, K., S. Bargu, J.R. White, C. Li, M. Sullivan, and E. Weeks. 2012. The Effects of two consecutive hurricanes on basal food resources in a shallow coastal lagoon in Louisiana. J. Coastal Res. 28: 407-420. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia] (Abstract and link to PDF file)

Gao, Y., W. Xie, Y. Li, Q. Yu, J. Liang, C. Chen, J. Yang, and Y. Qi. 2006. Pseudo-nitzschia: Taxonomy and biogeographical distribution in the estuary of the Changjiang River, China, p. 75-90. In: A. Witkowski [ed.] Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Diatom Symposium, Miêdzyzdroje, Poland. 2nd–7th September 2004. Biopress Ltd., UK. (Link to Table of Contents and purchase information)

Garali, S.M.B., I. Sahraoui, P. de la Iglesia, M. Chalghaf, J. Diogène, J. Ksouri, and A. Sakka Hlaili. 2016. Effects of nitrogen supply on Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha and Pseudo-nitzschia cf. seriata: field and laboratory experiments. Ecotoxicology 25: 1211-1225. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Gárate-Lizárraga, I., C.A. Poot-Delgado, E.R. Ramírez-Castillo, and M.H. Páez-Hernández. 2013. Proliferation of Pseudo-nitzschia brasiliana and P. cf. pseudodelicatissima (Bacillariophyceae) in the Estero Santa Cruz, northern Gulf of California, Mexico. Revista Biol. Mar. Oceanogra. 48: 393-399. (Publisher's abstract and link to Open Access PDF file) (Publisher’s Open Access PDF file; 849 KB)

Gárate-Lizárraga, I., C.J. Band-Schmidt, D.J. López-Cortés, J.J. Bustillos-Guzmán, and K. Erler. 2007. Bloom of Pseudo-nitzschia fraudulenta in Bahía de La Paz, Gulf of California (June-July 2006). Harmful Algae News, No. 33, p. 6-7. (PDF file of HAN No. 33; 3.3 MB)

García-Mendoza, E., D. Rivas, A. Olivos-Ortiz, A. Almazán-Becerril, C. Castañeda-Vega, and J.L. Peña-Manjarrez. 2009. A toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom in Todos Santos Bay, northwestern Baja California, Mexico. Harmful Algae 8: 493–503. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Garrison, D.L., S.M. Conrad, P.P. Eilers, and E.M. Waldron. 1992. Confirmation of domoic acid production by Pseudonitzschia australis (Bacillariophyceae) cultures. J. Phycol. 28: 604-607. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Gaudet, J. 2001. Bacterial mediated influences on the toxicity of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (Hasle) Hasle, a domoic-acid-producing pennate diatom. Honour's Thesis, Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB, Canada, 82 p.

Geng, H.-X., R.-C. Yu, Z.-F. Chen, Q.-C. Peng, T. Yan, and M.-J. Zhou. 2017. Analysis of sterols in selected bloom-forming algae in China. Harmful Algae 66: 29-39. [includes Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, P. delicatissima, P. multistriata] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Giovagnetti, V., S. Flori, F. Tramontano, J. Lavaud, and C. Brunet. 2014. The velocity of light intensity increase modulates the photoprotective response in coastal diatoms. PLoS ONE 9: e103782. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Gómez-Aguirre, S., S. Licea, and S. Gómez. 2004. Blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) and other phytoplankton species at Bahia de Mozatlán, Mexico. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52 Suppl.1: 69-73. (In Spanish, with English abstract). Spanish title: Proliferaciones de Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) y otras especies del microplancton en la Bahía de Mazatlán, México. (Publisher's abstract in English and text in Spanish) (PubMed)

Gomi, Y., H. Umeda, M. Fukuchi, and A. Taniguchi. 2005. Diatom assemblages in the surface water of the Indian Sector of the Antarctic Surface Water in summer of 1999/2000. Polar Biosci. 18: 1-15. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia heimii] (PDF file; 737 KB)

González Vilas, L., E. Spyrakos, J.M. Torres Palenzuela, and Y. Pazos. 2014. Support Vector Machine-based method for predicting Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms in coastal waters (Galician rias, NW Spain). Prog. Oceanogr. 124: 66-77. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Gorga, J.J., C. Mengelt, and B.B. Prézelin. 2004. UV-B inhibition of Pseudo-nitzschia australis: primary production is minimized by UV-A enhancement effects, p. 385-387. In: K.A. Steidinger, J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo [eds.] Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris. (PDF file) (Website for all PDF files of the Proceedings)

Graff, J.R., J.E.B. Rines, and P.L. Donaghay. 2011. Bacterial attachment to phytoplankton in the pelagic marine environment. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 441: 15-24. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia species] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Grbin, D., M. Pfannkuchen, I. Babić, M. Mejdandžić, H. Mihanović, D.M. Pfannkuchen, J. Godrijan, P.P. Štefanić, G. Olujić, and Z. Ljubešić. 2017. Multigene phylogeny and morphology of newly isolated strain of Pseudo-nitzschia mannii Amato & Montresor (Adriatic Sea). Diatom Res. 32: 127-131. (PDF file from ResearchGate; 741 KB) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Greenfield, D.I., R. Marin III, S. Jensen, E. Massion, B. Roman, J. Feldman, and C.A. Scholin. 2006. Application of Environmental Sample Processor (ESP) methodology for quantifying Pseudo-nitzschia australis using ribosomal RNA-targeted probes in sandwich and fluorescent in situ hybridization formats. Limnol. Oceanogr. Meth. 4: 426-435. (Table of contents with publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Greer, A.T., R.K. Cowen, C.M. Guigand, M.A. McManus, J.C. Sevadjian, and A.H.V. Timmerman. 2013. Relationships between phytoplankton thin layers and the fine-scale vertical distributions of two trophic levels of zooplankton. J. Plankton Res. 35: 939-956. [Pseudo-nitzschia in thin layers] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Griffith, R. 2016. The effects of chlorophyll and water temperature on harmful algal bloom species off the Southern coast of California. McNair Scholars Res. J. 3: Article 5. [includes domoic acid and Pseudo-nitzschia] (PDF file)

Groussman, R.D., M.S. Parker, and E.V. Armbrust. 2015. Diversity and evolutionary history of iron metabolism genes in diatoms. PLoS ONE 10: e0129081. [includes Pseudo-nitzschia heimii, P. granii, P. arenysensis, P. multiseries] (PDF file; 2.0 MB) (Publisher’s abstract and link to Open Access PDF file)

Grzebyk, D., S. Audic, B. Lasserre, E. Abadie, C. de Vargas, and B. Bec. 2017. Insights into the harmful algal flora in northwestern Mediterranean coastal lagoons revealed by pyrosequencing metabarcodes of the 28S rRNA gene. Harmful Algae 68: 1-16. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia galaxiae, P. delicatissima, P. brasiliana, P. calliantha] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Guannel, M.L., D. Haring, M.J. Twiner, Z. Wang, A.E. Noble, P.A. Lee, M.A. Saito, and G. Rocap. 2015. Toxigenicity and biogeography of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia across distinct environmental regimes in the South Atlantic Ocean. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 526: 67-87. [discusses P. inflatula, P. subpacifica, P. galaxiae, P. cuspidata, P. pungens, P. caciantha, P. inflatula/P. micropora, P. subpacifica/P. heimii, P. turgiduloides/P. turgidula using ARISA] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Guannel, M.L., M.C. Horner-Devine, and G. Rocap. 2011. Bacterial community composition differs with species and toxigenicity of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 64: 117-133. [discusses P. delicatissima, P. granii, P. pungens] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Guannel, Michele L. 2012. Marine microbial biogeography from microscopic to global scales: distributions of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia and co-existing bacteria. PhD thesis, University of Washington, 156 p. (Link to abstract)

Haché, Suzie. 2000. Détermination d'un signal (phéromone) produit par la diatomée toxique Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries ayant un rôle dans la communication sexuelle. Honour's Thesis, Université de Moncton, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada, 29 p. [this is a corrected, unofficial version, in its original French]

Archived File

The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF; 125 KB)

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Hagström, J.A., E. Granéli, M.O.P. Moreira, and C. Odebrecht. 2011. Domoic acid production and elemental composition of two Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries strains, from the NW and SW Atlantic Ocean, growing in phosphorus- or nitrogen-limited chemostat cultures. J. Plankton Res. 33: 297-308. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Hallegraeff, G.M. 1994. Species of the diatom genus Pseudonitzschia in Australian waters. Bot. Mar. 37: 397-411. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Hanic, L.A., S. Sekimoto, and S.S. Bates. 2009. Oomycete and chytrid infections of the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (Bacillariophyceae) from Prince Edward Island, Canada. Botany 87: 1096-1105. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file plus Supplementary Material) (Video; 4 MB)

Hansen, L.R., S.í Soylu, Y. Kotaki, Ø. Moestrup, and N. Lundholm. 2011. Toxin production and temperature-induced morphological variation of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia seriata from the Arctic. Harmful Algae 10: 689-696. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Harðardóttir, S., M. Pančić, A. Tammilehto, B. Krock, E.F. Møller, T.G. Nielsen, and N. Lundholm. 2015. Dangerous relations in the Arctic marine food web: interactions between toxin producing Pseudo-nitzschia diatoms and Calanus copepodites. Mar. Drugs 13: 3809-3835. (Publisher’s abstract and link to Open Access PDF file)

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Haring, Diana. 2010. Pseudo-nitzschia species distribution in estuaries of the Pacific Northwest based on Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA). Senior thesis written for Oceanography 444, University of Washington, Seattle, USA, 21 p. (Abstract and link to PDF file) (PDF file; 491 KB)

Harris, J. 2002. Diversity and distribution of bacteria growing on diatoms in nature and in culture. Honour's Thesis, Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB, Canada, 93 p.

Hasle, G.R. 1964. Nitzschia and Fragilariopsis species studied in the light and electron microscopes. I. Some marine species of the groups Nitzschia and Lanceolateae. Skr. Norske Vidensk-Akad. I. Mat.-Nat. Kl. Ny Series 16: 1-48.

Hasle, G.R. 1965. Nitzschia and Fragilariopsis species studied in the light and electron microscopes. II. The group Pseudonitzschia. Skr. Norske Vidensk-Akad. I. Mat.-Nat. Kl. Ny Series 18: 1-45.

Hasle, G.R. 1972. The distribution of Nitzschia seriata Cleve and allied species. Nova Hedwigia, Beiheft 39: 171-190.

Hasle, G.R. 1974. Validation of the names of some marine planktonic species of Nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae). Taxon 23: 425-428. (Access to PDF file from JSTOR)

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Hasle, G.R. 1995. Nomenclatural notes on Palmerina nom. nov.: Pseudo-nitzschia turgiduloides sp. nov. Diatom Res. 10: 357-358. (PDF file; 113 KB)

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Hasle, G.R. and E.E. Syvertsen. 1997. Marine diatoms, p. 5-385. In: C.R. Tomas [ed.] Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press, San Diego.

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Hasle, G.R., C.B. Lange, and E.E. Syvertsen. 1996. A review of Pseudo-nitzschia, with special reference to the Skagerrak, North Atlantic, and adjacent waters. Helgoländer Meeresun. 50: 131-175. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Havens, H., M.E. Luther, and S.D. Meyers. 2009. A coastal prediction system as an event response tool: particle tracking simulation of an anhydrous ammonia spill in Tampa Bay. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 58: 1202-1209. [detected a Pseudo-nitzschia bloom] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

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Hernández-Becerril, D.U. and E.M. Díaz-Almeyda. 2006. The Nitzschia bicapitata group, new records of the genus Nitzschia, and further studies on species of Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyta) from Mexican Pacific coasts, p. 293-306. In: R.M. Crawford, B. Moss, D.G. Mann, and H.R. Preisig. Nova Hedwigia, Beiheft 130. Gebrueder Borntraeger Verlagsbuchhandlung, Science Publishers, Stuttgart. [discusses P. roundii sp. nov., P. inflatula] (Link to Table of Contents and purchase information)

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Hernández-Becerril, D.U., R. Alonso-Rodríguez, C. Álvarez-Góngora, S.A. Barón-Campis, G. Ceballos-Corona, J. Herrera-Silveira, M.E. Meave del Castillo, N. Juárez-Ruíz, F. Merino-Virgilio, A. Morales-Blake, J.L. Ochoa, E. Orellana-Cepeda, C. Ramírez-Camarena, and R. Rodríguez-Salvador. 2007. Toxic and harmful marine phytoplankton and microalgae (HABs) in Mexican coasts. J. Environ. Sci. Health Part A 42: 1349-1363. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia species] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

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Jester, R., K. Lefebvre, G. Langlois, V. Vigilant, K. Baugh, and M.W. Silver. 2009. A shift in the dominant toxin-producing algal species in central California alters phycotoxins in food webs. Harmful Algae 8: 291-298. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia and domoic acid] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Jewel, M.A.A., S. Khan, and M.M. Haque. 2005. Seasonal dynamics in the occurrence and abundance of Pseudo-nitzschia species in the channel of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Fish. Res. 9: 169-174. [discusses P. pungens, P. pseudodelicatissima, P. delicatissima, P. australis] (PDF file; 295 KB)

Jiang, T., L. Liu, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Tan, H. Wu, T. Jiang, and S. Lu. 2017. Occurrence of marine algal toxins in oyster and phytoplankton samples in Daya Bay, South China Sea, Chemosphere 183: 80-88. [discusses domoic acid and Pseudo-nitzschia] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Jiménez-Pérez, L.C., M. del Carmen Cortés-Lara, and A.L. Cupul-Magaña. 2013. Parches del zooplancton asociados con dos florecimientos algales nocivos en Bahía de Banderas (Zooplankton patchiness associated with two harmful algal blooms in Bahia de Banderas). Hidrobiológica 23: 176-186. (in Spanish) [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia sp.] (PDF file; 1.1 MB) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Johnston, M., S. Gallacher, E.A. Smith, and L.A. Glover. 2001. Detection of N-acyl homoserine lactones in marine bacteria associated with production and biotransformation of sodium channel blocking toxins and the microflora of toxin-producing phytoplankton, p. 375-378. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, S.I. Blackburn, C.J. Bolch, and R.J. Lewis [eds.] Harmful Algal Blooms 2000. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris. [discusses N-AHL pheromones in bacteria from a P. multiseries isolate]

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Kang, S-H., G.A. Fryxell, and D.L. Roelke. 1993. Fragilariopsis cylindrus (Grunow) Krieger compared with other species of the diatom family Bacillariaceae in Antarctic marginal ice edge zones. In: Sims, P.A. [ed.], Progress in diatom studies: contributions to taxonomy, ecology and nomenclature. Nova Hedwigia, Beiheft 106: 335-352. [mentions P. turgiduloides, P. lineola and P. subcurvata as being negative for domoic acid] (Access to book)

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Kegel, J.U., Y. Del Amo, L. Costes, and L.K. Medlin. 2013. Testing a microarray to detect and monitor toxic microalgae in Arcachon Bay in France. Microarrays 2: 1-23. [includes discussion of Pseudo-nitzschia species] (Publisher’s abstract and link to Open Access PDF file)

Kesici, K., İ. Tüney, D. Zeren, M. Güden, and A. Sukatar. 2013. Morphological and molecular identification of pennate diatoms isolated from Urla, İzmir, coast of the Aegean Sea. Turk. J. Biol. 37: 530-537. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima] (Download PDF file from ResearchGate)

Kim, J.H., B.S. Park, J.H. Kim, P. Wang, and M.S. Han. 2015. Intraspecific diversity and distribution of the cosmopolitan species Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (Bacillariophyceae): morphology, genetics, and ecophysiology of the three clades. J. Phycol. 51: 159–172. (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Kim, J.H., J.-H. Kim, B.S. Park, P. Wang, S.K. Patidar, and M.-S. Han. 2017. Development of a qPCR assay for tracking the ecological niches of genetic sub-populations within Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (Bacillariophyceae). Harmful Algae 63: 68-78. (PDF file from ResearchGate) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Kisa, D. and K. Pabuçcu. 2016. Contributions to algae flora of Gerze coastline (Sinop, Turkey). Sinop Univ. J. Nat. Sci. 1: 36-45. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima] (PDF file; 700 KB)

Klein, C., P. Claquin, V. Bouchart, B. Le Roy, and B. Véron. 2010. Dynamics of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and domoic acid production in a macrotidal ecosystem of the Eastern English Channel (Normandy, France). Harmful Algae 9: 218-226. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Knattrup, A., M. Yde, N. Lundholm, and M. Ellegaard. 2007. A detailed description of a Danish strain of Nitzshia sigmoidea, the type species of Nitzschia, providing a reference for future morphological and phylogenetic studies of the genus. Diatom Research 22: 105-116. [shows that these species do not produce domoic acid] (Abstract in Scopus)

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Kobayashi, K., Y. Takata, and M. Kodama. 2009. Direct contact between Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and bacteria is necessary for the diatom to produce a high level of domoic acid. Fish. Sci. 75: 771-776. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Koester, J.A., W.J. Swanson, and E.V. Armbrust. 2013. Positive selection within a diatom species acts on putative protein interactions and transcriptional regulation. Mol. Biol. Evol. 30: 422-434. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Köhler, M.B.L. 1997. Untersuchungen zu Wachstum und Produktion der Kieselalgen Pseudo-nitzschia in einem Bioreaktor. Diploma Thesis in Engineering, Fachbereich Naturwissenschaftliche Technik, Emden, Germany, 183 p.

Koray, O. and S. Bargu. 2014. Distinct responses of Gulf of Mexico phytoplankton communities to crude oil and the dispersant corexit® Ec9500A under different nutrient regimes. Ecotoxicology 23: 370-384. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Kotaki, Y., E.F. Furio, F.A. Bajarias, M. Satake, N. Lundholm, K. Koike, S. Sato, Y. Fukuyo, and M. Kodama. 2006. New stage of the study on domoic acid-producing diatoms - A finding of Nitzschia navis-varingica that produces domoic acid derivatives as major toxin components. Coast. Mar. Sci. 30: 116-120. (PDF file in ResearchGate; 160 KB)

Kotaki, Y., E.F. Furio, M. Satake, N. Lundholm, T. Katayama, K. Koike, V.P. Fulgueras, F.A. Bajarias, Y. Takata, K. Kobayashi, S. Sato, Y. Fukuyo, and M. Kodama. 2005. Production of isodomoic acids A and B as major toxin components of a pennate diatom Nitzschia navis-varingica. Toxicon 46: 946-953. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Kotaki, Y., K. Koike, M. Yoshida, C.V. Thuoc, N.T.M. Huyen, N.C. Hoi, Y. Fukuyo, and M. Kodama. 2000. Domoic acid production in Nitzschia sp. (Bacillariophyceae) isolated from a shrimp-culture pond in Do Son, Vietnam. J. Phycol. 36: 1057-1060. (PDF file from ResearchGate) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Kotaki, Y., K. Koike, S. Sato, T. Ogata, Y. Fukuyo, and M. Kodama. 1999. Confirmation of domoic acid production of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries isolated from Ofunato Bay, Japan. Toxicon 37: 677-682. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Kotaki, Y., Koike, K., Ogata, T., Sato, S., Fukuyo, Y., and Kodama, M. 1996. Domoic acid production by an isolate of Pseudonitzschia multiseries, a possible cause for the toxin detected in bivalves in Ofunato Bay, Japan, p. 151-154. In: T. Yasumoto, Y. Oshima, and Y. Fukuyo [eds.] Harmful and toxic algal blooms. Intergov. Oceanogr. Comm., UNESCO, Paris.

Kotaki, Y., N. Lundholm, H. Onodera, K. Kobayashi, F.F.A. Bajarias, E. Furio, M. Iwataki, Y. Fukuyo, and M. Kodama. 2004. Wide distribution of Nitzschia navis-varingica, a new domoic acid-producing benthic diatom found in Vietnam. Fish. Sci. 70: 28-32. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Kotaki, Y., N. Lundholm, T. Katayama, E.F. Furio, M.L. Romero, J.R. Relox, T. Yasumoto, H. Naoki, M.Y. Hirose, T.D. Thanh, C.V. Thuoc, N.T.M. Huyen, P.T. Thu, Y. Takata, M. Kodama, and Y. Fukuyo. 2008. ASP toxins of pennate diatoms and bacterial effects on the variation in toxin composition, p. 300-302. In: Moestrup, Ø. [ed.] Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Harmful Algae. International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Copenhagen. (Download PDF of Proceedings; 12 MB) (To order the Proceedings)

Krock, B., C.M. Borel, F. Barrera, U. Tillmann, E. Fabro, G.O. Almandoz, M. Ferrario, J.E.G. Cardona, B.P. Koch, C. Alonso, and R. Lara. 2015. Analysis of the hydrographic conditions and cyst beds in the San Jorge Gulf, Argentina, that favor dinoflagellate population development including toxigenic species and their toxins. J. Mar. Syst. 148: 86-100. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia australis and P. pungens] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Kudela, R., A. Roberts, and M. Armstrong. 2004. Laboratory analyses of nutrient stress and toxin accumulation in Pseudo-nitzschia species from Monterey Bay, California, p. 136-138. In: K.A. Steidinger, J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo [eds.] Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris. (PDF file; 497 KB) (Website for all PDF files of the Proceedings)

Kudela, R., C. Anderson, D. Lucas, D. Caron, B. Jones, G. Sukhatme, C. Scholin, J. Ryan, J. Birch, K. Rajan, G.J. Smith, Y. Chao, and G. Doucette. 2014. A regional comparison of upwelling, coastal land use patterns, and HAB hotspots along the California coast, p. 67-70. In: Kim, H.G., B. Reguera, G.M. Hallegraeff, C.K. Lee, M.S. Han, and J.K. Choi. [eds.] Harmful Algae 2012, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Harmful Algae. International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae, Maple Design, Busan, Korea. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (PDF file of accepted paper; 114 KB) (PDF of Proceedings; 6.4 MB)

Kudela, R., W. Cochlan, and A. Roberts. 2004. Spatial and temporal patterns of Pseudo-nitzschia species in central California related to regional oceanography, p. 347-349. In: K.A. Steidinger, J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo [eds.] Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris. (PDF file; 918 KB) (Website for all PDF files of the Proceedings)

Kudela, R.M., J.Q. Lane, and W.P. Cochlan. 2008. The potential role of anthropogenically derived nitrogen in the growth of harmful algae in California, USA. Harmful Algae 8: 103-110. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Ladizinsky, N. 2003. The influence of dissolved copper on the production of domoic acid by Pseudo-nitzschia species in Monterey Bay, California: laboratory experiments and field observations. Master's Thesis, California State University, Monterey Bay, CA, USA. 68 p.

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Laflamme, Mark Y. 1993. Contrôle de la croissance et de la production d'acide domoïque par la diatomée Pseudonitzschia pungens forma multiseries en cultures continues. M.Sc. Thesis, Université de Moncton, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada. 141 p.

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Lamari, N., M.V. Ruggiero, G. d’Ippolito, W.H.C.F. Kooistra, A. Fontana, and M. Montresor. 2013. Specificity of lipoxygenase pathways supports species delineation in the marine diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia. PLoS One 8(8): e73281. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073281 (Publisher’s abstract and link to Open Access PDF file)

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Lange, C.B., F.M.H. Reid, and M. Vernet. 1994. Temporal distribution of the potentially toxic diatom Pseudonitzschia australis at a coastal site in southern California. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 104: 309-312. (Open access PDF file; 988 KB)

Lapworth, C.J. G.M. Hallegraeff, and P.A. Ajani. 2001. Identification of domoic-acid producing Pseudo-nitzschia species in Australian waters, p. 38-41. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, S.I. Blackburn, C.J. Bolch, and R.J. Lewis [eds.] Harmful Algal Blooms 2000. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris.

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Leblanc, K., C.E. Hare, P.W. Boyd, K.W. Bruland, B. Sohst, S. Pickmere, M.C. Lohan, K. Buck, M. Ellwood, and D.A. Hutchins. 2005. Fe and Zn effects on the Si cycle and diatom community structure in two contrasting high and low-silicate HNLC areas. Deep-Sea Res. 52: 1842-1864. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Lecher, A.L., K. Mackey, R. Kudela, J. Ryan, A. Fisher, J. Murray, and A. Paytan. 2015. Nutrient loading through submarine groundwater discharge and phytoplankton growth in Monterey Bay, CA. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49: 6665–6673. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Lee, J.H. 1994. Neurotoxin-producing diatom, Pseudonitzschia pungens Grunow f. multiseries Hasle, off the coastal waters of southern Korea. I. Morphological features. Korean J. Phycol. 9: 125-134.

Lee, J.H. and J.H. Baik. 1997. Neurotoxin-producing Pseudonitzschia multiseries (Hasle) Hasle, in the coastal waters of Southern Korea. II. Production of domoic acid. Algae (Korean J. Phycol.) 12: 31-38. (Abstract)

Lelong, A., D.F. Jolley, P. Soudant, and H. Hégaret. 2012. Impact of copper exposure on Pseudo-nitzschia spp. physiology and domoic acid production. Aquat. Toxicol. 118-119: 37-47. [discusses P. multiseries, P. delicatissima] (Download PDF file) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Lelong, A., E. Bucciarelli, H. Hégaret, and P. Soudant. 2013. Iron and copper limitations differently affect growth rates and photosynthetic and physiological parameters of the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima. Limnol. Oceanogr. 58: 613-623. (Download PDF file from ResearchGate) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Lelong, A., H. Hégaret, and P. Soudant. 2014. Link between domoic acid production and cell physiology after exchange of bacterial communities between toxic Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and non-toxic Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima. Mar. Drugs 12: 3587-3607. (Publisher’s abstract and link to Open Access PDF file)

Lelong, A., Hégaret, H., and P. Soudant. 2011. Cell-based measurements to assess physiological status of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries, a toxic diatom. Res. Microbiol. 162: 969–981. (Download PDF file) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Lema, K.A., M. Latimier, É. Nézan, J. Fauchot, and M. Le Gac. 2017. Inter and intra-specific growth and domoic acid production in relation to nutrient ratios and concentrations in Pseudo-nitzschia: phosphate an important factor. Harmful Algae 64: 11-19. [discusses P. australis, P. fraudulenta, P. pungens] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Leterme, S.C., C. Le Lan, D.A. Hemraj, and A.V. Ellis. 2016. The impact of diatoms on the biofouling of seawater reverse osmosis membranes in a model cross-flow system. Desalination 392: 8-13. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia sp.] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Levialdi Ghiron, J.H., A. Amato, M. Montresor, and W.H.C.F. Kooistra. 2008. Plastid inheritance in the planktonic raphid pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima (Bacillariophyceae). Protist 159: 91-98. (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Lewis, N.I., S.S. Bates, J.L. McLachlan, and J.C. Smith. 1993. Temperature effects on growth, domoic acid production, and morphology of the diatom Nitzschia pungens f. multiseries, p. 601-606. In: T.J. Smayda and Y. Shimizu [eds.] Toxic phytoplankton blooms in the sea. Elsevier Sci. Publ. B.V., Amsterdam.

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Li, A., R. Yu, Y. Wang, T. Yan, and M. Zhou. 2005. Morphological and toxicity characteristics of Pseudo-nitzschia pungens strain PP0201-01 isolated from the East China Sea. Chinese J. Oceanol. Limnol. 23: 418-426. (PDF file at publisher's website) (PDF file at ReseachGate) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Li, Y., C.X. Huang, G.S. Xu, N. Lundholm, S.T. Teng, H. Wu, and Z. Tan. 2017. Pseudo-nitzschia simulans sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae), the first domoic acid producer from Chinese waters. Harmful Algae 67: 119-130. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Li, Y., L.N. He, Y.Y. Ma, and S.H. Lu. 2010. The study on morphological taxonomy of Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima complex. Acta Hydrobiol. Sinica 34: 302-311. (in Chinese) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Li, Y., Y.Y. Ma, and S.H. Lu. 2010. Morphological characteristics of Pseudo-nitzschia americana complex in Daya Bay, China. Acta Hydrobiol. Sinica 34: 851-855. (in Chinese) (Publisher's link to PDF file)

Liefer, J.D., A. Robertson, H.L. MacIntyre, W.L. Smith, and C.P. Dorsey. 2013. Characterization of a toxic Pseudo-nitzschia spp. bloom in the Northern Gulf of Mexico associated with domoic acid accumulation in fish. Harmful Algae 26: 20-32. [discusses P. subfraudulenta, P. pungens, P. pseudodelicatissima] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Liefer, J.D., H.L. MacIntyre, L. Novoveská, W.L. Smith, and C.P. Dorsey. 2009. Temporal and spatial variability in Pseudo-nitzschia spp. in Alabama coastal waters: a “hot spot” linked to submarine groundwater discharge? Harmful Algae 8: 706-714. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Liefer, Justin D. 2012. Phytoplankton community structure and the physiological ecology of the toxic bloom-forming diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. in coastal Alabama. Ph.D. Thesis, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL, May 2012, 355 p. (ProQuest abstract and link to preview PDF file)

Lim H.-C., P.-T. Lim, S.N.-P. Su, Y. Kotaki, and C.-P. Leaw. 2012. Morphological observation of two species of Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae). Coast. Mar. Sci. 35: 52-57. [discusses P. brasiliana, P. pungens] (Alternate link to PDF file) (PDF file; 1.45 MB)

Lim H.C., P.-T. Lim, S.N.P. Su, S.T. Teng, and C.-P. Leaw. 2012. Genetic diversity of Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (Bacillariophyceae) in Borneo, Malaysia. Coast. Mar. Sci. 35: 58-63. [discusses P. brasilliana, P. cuspidata, P. dolorosa, P. micropora, P. pungens, P. circumpora] (Alternate link to PDF file) (PDF file; 843 KB)

Lim, H.-C., C.-P. Leaw, S.N.-P. Su, S.-T. Teng, G. Usup, N.M. Noor, N. Lundholm, Y. Kotaki, and P.-T. Lim. 2012. Morphology and molecular characterization of Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) from Malaysian Borneo, including the new species of Pseudo-nitzschia circumpora sp. nov. J. Phycol. 48: 1232-1247. [also discusses P. brasiliana, P. cuspidata, P. dolorosa, P. micropora, P. pungens var. pungens] (PDF file) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Lim, H.-C., P.-T. Lim, S.N.-P. Su, S.-T. Teng, and C.-P. Leaw. 2012. Genetic diversity of Pseudo-nitzschia brasiliana (Bacillariophyceae) from Malaysia. J. Appl. Phycol. 24: 1465–1475. (PDF file) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Lim, H.-C., S.-T. Teng, C.-P. Leaw, S.-Z. binti Kamarudin, and P.-T. Lim. 2014. Growth response of Pseudo-nitzschia circumpora (Bacillariophyceae) to different salinities, p. 135-136. In: Kim, H.G., B. Reguera, G.M. Hallegraeff, C.K. Lee, M.S. Han, and J.K. Choi. [eds.] Harmful Algae 2012, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Harmful Algae. International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae, Maple Design, Busan, Korea. (PDF file of accepted paper; 151 KB) (PDF of Proceedings; 6.4 MB)

Lim, H.-C., S.N.-P. Su, H. Mohamed-Ali, Y. Kotaki, C.-P. Leaw, and P.-T. Lim. 2010. Toxicity of diatom Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). J. Sci. Technol. Tropics 6: S116-S119. (PDF file; 261 KB)

Lim, H.C. 2011. Morphological and molecular characterization of potential amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin-producing diatom Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) from Malaysia. Master of Science Thesis, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Sarawak, Malaysia, 138 p. (Access to full text via ResearchGate; 1.8 MB)

Lim, H.C., P.T. Lim, S.T. Teng, S.S. Bates, and C.P. Leaw. 2014. Genetic structure of Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (Bacillariophyceae) populations: implications of a global diversification of the diatom. Harmful Algae 37: 142-152. (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Lim, H.C., S.T. Teng, C.P. Leaw, M. Iwataki, and P.T. Lim. 2014. Phytoplankton assemblage of the Merambong Shoal, Tebrau Straits with note on potentially harmful species. Malayan Nature J. 66: 198-211. [discusses P. brasiliana and P. pungens] (PDF file from ResearchGate)

Lim, H.G., S.T. Teng, C.P. Leaw, and P.T. Lim. 2013. Three novel species in the Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima complex: P. batesiana sp. nov., P. lundholmiae sp. nov. and P. fukuyoi sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae), from the Strait of Malacca, Malaysia. J. Phycol. 49: 902-916. (Corrigendum) (PDF file; 1 MB) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Lim, H.G., S.T. Teng, P.T. Lim, M. Wolf, and C.P. Leaw. 2016. 18S rDNA phylogeny of Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) inferred from sequence-structure information. Phycologia 55: 134-146. (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Lim, Hong Chang. 2014. Morphology, taxonomy and genetics of tropical diatom Pseudo-nitzschia species (Bacillariophyceae) in Malaysian waters. PhD Thesis. Faculty of Resource Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia, 180 p. (PDF file in ResearchGate; 7 MB)

Lim, P.-T., S.N.P. Su, H.-C. Lim, C.-P. Leaw, S.Z. Kamarudin, S.-T. Teng, J. Grinang, and Y. Kotaki. 2012. Occurrence of Pseudo-nitzschia species (Bacillariophyceae) at Kuching estuaries from year 2007 to 2010. Mar. Res. Indonesia 37: 57-71. (PDF file; 840 KB)

Lin, Zuo. 2008. The morphology, genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of five Pseudo-nitzschia species in Southeast China Sea. Master’s Thesis, Xiamen University, China. 95 p. (in Chinese, with an English Abstract) (Abstract and link to PDF file)

Ljubešić, Z., S. Bosak, D. Viličić, K.K. Borojević, D. Marić, J. Godrijan, I. Ujević, P. Peharec, and T. Đakovac. 2011. Ecology and taxonomy of potentially toxic Pseudo-nitzschia species in Lim Bay (north-eastern Adriatic Sea). Harmful Algae 10: 713-722. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

López-Cortés, D.J., E.J. Núñez-Vázquez, C.J. Band-Schmidt, I. Gárate-Lizárraga, F.E. Hernández-Sandoval, and J.J. Bustillos-Guzmán. 2015. Mass fish die-off during a diatom bloom in the Bahía de La Paz, Gulf of California. Hidrobiológica 25: 39-48. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia species] (PDF file from ResearchGate)

Loureiro, S., C. Jauzein, E. Garcés, Y. Collos, J. Camp, and D. Vaqué. 2009. The significance of organic nutrients in the nutrition of Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima (Bacillariophyceae). J. Plankton Res. 31: 399-410. (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Loureiro, S., E. Garcés, M. Fernández-Tejedor, D. Vaqué, and J. Camp. 2009. Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) dynamics in the Ebro Delta (Alfacs Bay, NW Mediterranean Sea). Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 83: 539-549. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Louw, D.C., G.J. Doucette, and E. Voges. 2017. Annual patterns, distribution and long-term trends of Pseudo-nitzschia species in the northern Benguela upwelling system. J. Plankton Res. 39: 35-47. (PDF file from ResearchGate; 1 MB) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Lu, S., H. Chen, and Z. He. 2007. The effects of different c(N)/c(P) ratios on the growth of Pseudo-nitzschia pungens. Ecol. Environ. 15: 697-701. (in Chinese) (Link to PDF file)

Lü, S., Y. Li, N. Lundholm, Y. Ma, and K.C. Ho. 2012. Diversity, taxonomy and biogeographical distribution of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) in Guangdong coastal waters, South China Sea. Nova Hedwigia 95: 123-152. [discusses P. americana, P. brasiliana, P. caciantha, P. calliantha, P. cuspidata, P. cf. lineola, P. mannii, P. multiseries, P. multistriata, P. pseudodelicatissima, P. pungens, P. sinica, P. subfraudulenta, P. subpacifica] (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Lugomela, C. 2013. Population dynamics of Pseudo-nitzschia species (Bacillariophyceae) in the near shore waters of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Tanz. J. Sci. 39: 38-48. [discusses P. pungens, P. seriata, P. cuspidata] (Publisher’s abstract and link to free PDF file)

Lund-Hansen, L.C. and T. Vang. 2004. An inflow and intrusion event in the Little Belt at the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition and a related sub-surface bloom of Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 59: 265-276. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Lundholm, N. 2000. A study of Pseudo-nitzschia based on morphology and molecular phylogeny – with implications for the systematics of Bacillariaceae. PhD Thesis, University of Copenhagen.

Lundholm, N. and J. Skov. 1993. Pseudonitzschia pseudodelicatissima in Scandinavian coastal waters. Harmful Algae News, No. 5, p. 4-5. (PDF file of HAN No. 5; 2.43 MB)

Lundholm, N. and Ø. Moestrup. 2000. Morphology of the marine diatom Nitzschia navis-varingica sp. nov., another producer of the neurotoxin domoic acid. J. Phycol. 36: 1162-1174. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Lundholm, N. and Ø. Moestrup. 2002. The marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia galaxiae sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae): morphology and phylogenetic relationships. Phycologia 41: 594-605. (Publisher's abstact and link to PDF file)

Lundholm, N., A. Clarke, and M. Ellegaard. 2010. A 100-year record of changing Pseudo-nitzschia species in a sill-fjord in Denmark related to nitrogen loading and temperature. Harmful Algae 9: 449-457. (Publishers abstract and link to PDF file)

Lundholm, N., G.R. Hasle, G.A. Fryxell, and P.E. Hargraves. 2002. Morphology, phylogeny and taxonomy of species within the Pseudo-nitzschia americana complex (Bacillariophyceae) with descriptions of two new species, Pseudo-nitzschia brasiliana and Pseudo-nitzschia linea. Phycologia 41: 480-497. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Lundholm, N., J. Skov, R. Pocklington, and Ø. Moestrup. 1994. Pseudonitzschia seriata - A new toxic diatom. Harmful Algae News, No. 8, p. 6. The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Lundholm, N., J. Skov, R. Pocklington, and Ø. Moestrup. 1994. Domoic acid, the toxic amino acid responsible for amnesic shellfish poisoning, now in Pseudonitzschia seriata (Bacillariophyceae) in Europe. Phycologia 33: 475-478. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Lundholm, N., J. Skov, R. Pocklington, and Ø. Moestrup. 1997. Studies on the marine planktonic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia. 2. Autecology of P. pseudodelicatissima based on isolates from Danish coastal waters. Phycologia 36: 381-388. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Lundholm, N., N. Daugbjerg, and Ø. Moestrup. 2002. Phylogeny of the Bacillariaceae with emphasis on the genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) based on partial LSU rDNA. Eur. J. Phycol. 37: 115-134. (PDF file outside DFO's website)

Lundholm, N., Ø. Moestrup, G.R. Hasle, and K. Hoef-Emden. 2003. A study of the Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima/cuspidata complex (Bacillariophyceae): What is P. pseudodelicatissima? J. Phycol. 39: 797-813. [discusses P. calliantha sp. nov., P. caciantha sp. nov., P. cuspidata] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Lundholm, N., Ø. Moestrup, Y. Kotaki, K. Hoef-Emden, C. Scholin, and P. Miller. 2006. Inter- and intraspecific variation of the Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima complex (Bacillariophyceae) illustrated by rRNA probes, morphological data and phylogenetic analyses. J. Phycol. 42: 464-481. [discusses P. decipiens sp. nov. and P. dolorosa sp. nov.] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Lundholm, N., P.J. Hansen, and Y. Kotaki. 2004. Effect of pH on growth and domoic acid production by potentially toxic diatoms of the genera Pseudo-nitzschia and Nitzschia. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 273: 1-15. [discusses P. calliantha, P. delicatissima, P. fraudulenta, P. granii, P. pungens, P. seriata, P. cf. turgidula, Nitzschia navis-varingica] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Lundholm, N., P.J. Hansen, and Y. Kotaki. 2005. Lack of allelopathic effects of the domoic acid-producing marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 288: 21-33. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Lundholm, N., S.S. Bates, K.A. Baugh, B.D. Bill, L.B. Connell, C. Léger, and V.L. Trainer. 2012. Cryptic and pseudo-cryptic diversity in diatoms—with descriptions of Pseudo-nitzschia hasleana sp. nov. and P. fryxelliana sp. nov. J. Phycol. 48: 436-454. [also discusses P. calliantha, P. cuspidata, P. lineola] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Lyons, D. 2002. Effect of organic enrichment on growth and domoic acid production by axenic cultures of the pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. Honour's Thesis, Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB, Canada, 94 p.

Archived File

The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF file; 1.3 MB)

MacFadyen, A., B.M. Hickey, and W.P. Cochlan. 2008. Influences of the Juan de Fuca eddy on circulation, nutrients and phytoplankton production in the northern California Current System. J. Geophys. Res. 113: C08008, doi:10.1029/2007JC004412 [includes a discussion of the “development and export of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms”] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

MacIntyre, H.L., A.L. Stutes, W.L. Smith, C.P. Dorsey, A. Abraham, and R.W. Dickey. 2011. Environmental correlates of community composition and toxicity during a bloom of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. in the northern Gulf of Mexico. J. Plankton Res. 33: 273-295. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Mackey, K.R.M., C.-T. Chien, and A. Paytan. 2014. Microbial and biogeochemical responses to projected future nitrate enrichment in the California upwelling system. Front. Microbiol. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] 5: 632. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00632 (Link to publisher’s abstract and PDF file)

MacPhee, D.J., L.A. Hanic, D.L. Friesen, and D.E. Sims. 1992. Morphology of the toxin-producing diatom Nitzschia pungens Grunow forma multiseries Hasle. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 49: 303-311.

Archived File

The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF file; 857 KB)

Mafra, L.L., Jr. 2005. Microalgas nocivas e ficotoxinas no complexo. estuarino de paranaguá, pr: subsídios para o. monitoramento. 158 p. Master's thesis (in Portuguese), Universidade Federal do Paraná, Brazil. Sections on Pseudo-nitzschia and domoic acid. (PDF file outside DFO's website; 1.7 MB)

Mafra, L.L., Jr., L.F. Fernandes, and L.A.O. Proença. 2006. Harmful algae and toxins in Paranaguá Bay, Brazil: bases for monitoring. Braz. J. Oceanogr. 54: 107-121. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Maki, T., A. Ishikawa, T. Mastunaga, S.B. Pointing, Y. Saito, T. Kasai, K. Watanabe, K. Aoki, A. Horiuchi, K.C. Lee, H. Hasegawa, and Y. Iwasaka. 2016. Atmospheric aerosol deposition influences marine microbial communities in oligotrophic surface waters of the western Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. I 118: 37-45. [includes Pseudo-nitzschia] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Maldonado, M.T., M.P. Hughes, E.L. Rue, and M.L. Wells. 2002. The effect of Fe and Cu on growth and domoic acid production by Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and Pseudo-nitzschia australis. Limnol. Oceanogr. 47: 515-526. (PDF file outside of DFO's website) (PDF file; umaine.edu)

Malviya, S., E. Scalco, S. Audic, F. Vincent, A. Veluchamy, J. Poulain, P. Wincker, D. Iudicone, C. de Vargas, L. Bittner, A. Zingone, and C. Bowler. 2016. Insights into global diatom distribution and diversity in the world’s ocean. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113: E1516-E1525. [discusses worldwide distribution of Pseudo-nitzschia] (PDF file; 1.7 MB) (Publisher’s abstract and link to Open Access PDF file)

Manhart, J.R., G.A. Fryxell, C. Villac, and L.Y. Segura. 1995. Pseudo-nitzschia pungens and P. multiseries (Bacillariophyceae): nuclear ribosomal DNAs and species differences. J. Phycol. 31: 421-427. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Manheim, D.C. and S.C. Jiang. 2017. Investigation of algal biotoxin removal during SWRO desalination through a materials flow analysis. Water 9: 730. doi:10.3390/w9100730 [discusses domoic acid and Pseudo-nitzschia] (PDF file; 1.7 MB) (Publisher’s abstract and link to Open Access PDF file)

Mann, D.G. and S.S. Bates. 2002. Life cycles in diatoms; gaps in knowledge, p. 117-120. In: E. Garcés, A. Zingone, B. Dale, M. Montresor, and B. Reguera [eds.] Proceedings of the LIFEHAB Workshop: Life history of microalgal species causing harmful algal blooms. Commission of the European Community. (PDF file outside DFO's website; link to entire Proceedings - 8 MB)

Archived File

The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF file; 112 KB)

Marangoni, C., R.N. Pienaar, S.D. Sym, and G.C. Pitcher. 2001. Pseudo-nitzschia australis Frenguelli from Lambert's Bay, South Africa, p. 53. In: Proceedings of the Microscopy Society of Southern Africa, Johannesburg, South Africa, Vol. 31. Micros. Soc. of Southern Africa, Onderstepoort, South Africa. (Related article)

Marchetti, A. and P.J. Harrison. 2007. Coupled changes in the cell morphology and the elemental (C, N, and Si) composition of the pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschia due to iron deficiency. Limnol. Oceanogr. 52: 2270-2284. (Publisher's table of contents and links to abstract and PDF file)

Marchetti, A., C.M. Moreno, N.R. Cohen, I. Oleinikov, K. deLong, B.S. Twining, V.E. Armbrust, and R.H. Lampe. 2017. Development of a molecular-based index for assessing iron status in bloom-forming pennate diatoms. J. Phycol. 53: 820-832. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia granii] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Marchetti, A., D. Catlett, B.M. Hopkinson, K. Ellis, and N. Cassar. 2015. Marine diatom proteorhodopsins and their potential role in coping with low iron availability. ISME J. 9: 2745-2748. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia granii] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Marchetti, A., D.E. Varela, V.P. Lance, Z. Johnson, M. Palmucci, M. Giordano, and E.V. Armbrust. 2010. Iron and silicic acid effects on phytoplankton productivity, diversity, and chemical composition in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr. 55: 11-29. [includes Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher's Table of Contents and links to Abstract and PDF file)

Marchetti, A., D.M. Schruth, C.A. Durkin, M.S. Parker, R. Kodner, C.T. Berthiaume, R. Morales, A.E. Allen, and E.V. Armbrust. 2012. Comparative metatranscriptomics identifies molecular bases for the physiological responses of phytoplankton to varying iron availability. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109: E317-E325. [includes transcripts derived from Pseudo-nitzschia granii] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Marchetti, A., M.S. Parker, L.P. Moccia, E.O. Lin, A.L. Arrieta, F. Ribalet, M.E.P. Murphy, M.T. Maldonado, and E.V. Armbrust. 2009. Ferritin is used for iron storage in bloom-forming marine pennate diatoms. Nature 457: 467-470. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. granii] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Marchetti, A., M.T. Maldonado, E.S. Lane, and P.J. Harrison. 2006. Iron requirements of the pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschia: comparison of oceanic (high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll waters) and coastal species. Limnol. Oceanogr. 51: 2092-2101. (Link to PDF file)

Marchetti, A., N. Lundholm, Y. Kotaki, K. Hubbard, P.J. Harrison, and E.V. Armbrust. 2008. Identification and assessment of domoic acid production in oceanic Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) from iron-limited waters in the northeast subarctic Pacific. J. Phycol. 44: 650-661. [discusses P. dolorosa, P. granii, P. heimii, P. cf. turgidula, ARISA] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Marchetti, A., N.D. Sherry, H. Kiyosawa, A. Tsuda, and P.J. Harrison. 2006. Phytoplankton processes during a mesoscale iron enrichment in the NE subarctic Pacific: Part I - Biomass and assemblage. Deep-Sea Res. 53: 2095-2113. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Marchetti, A., V.L. Trainer, and P.J. Harrison. 2004. Environmental conditions and phytoplankton dynamics associated with Pseudo-nitzschia abundance and domoic acid in the Juan de Fuca eddy. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 281: 1-12. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Marchetti, Adrian. 2005. Ecophysiological aspects of iron nutrition and domoic acid production in oceanic and coastal diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. PhD thesis. University of British Columbia, Canada, 220 p. (Link to thesis)

Marić, D., Z. Ljubešić, J. Godrijan, D. Viličić, I. Ujević, and R. Precali. 2011. Blooms of the potentially toxic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha Lundholm, Moestrup & Hasle in coastal waters of the northern Adriatic Sea (Croatia). Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 92: 323-331. (PDF file of uncorrected proofs; 960 KB) (Publisher's abstract and link to pdf file)

Markina, Z.V. and N.A. Aizdaicher. 2016. The effect of lowered salinity of sea water on the growth and photosynthetic pigment content in three strains of the microalgae Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (Grunow ex. P.T. Cleve) Hasle, 1993 (Bacillariophyta). Russ. J. Mar. Biol. 42: 414-418. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Martin-Jézéquel, V., G. Calu, L. Candela, Z. Amzil, T. Jauffrais, V. Séchet, and P. Weigel. 2015. Effects of organic and inorganic nitrogen on the growth and production of domoic acid by Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. australis (Bacillariophyceae) in culture. Mar. Drugs 13: 7067-7086. (Publisher’s abstract and link to Open Access PDF file)

Martin, J.L. and M.M. LeGresley. 2008. New phytoplankton species in the Bay of Fundy since 1995. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 65: 759-764. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (PDF file; 800 KB) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Martin, J.L., A.R. Hankea, and M.M. LeGresley. 2009. Long term phytoplankton monitoring, including harmful algal blooms, in the Bay of Fundy, eastern Canada. J. Sea Res. 61: 76-83. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Martin, J.L., K. Haya, and D.J. Wildish. 1993. Distribution and domoic acid content of Nitzschia pseudodelicatissima in the Bay of Fundy, p. 613-618. In: T.J. Smayda and Y. Shimizu [eds.] Toxic phytoplankton blooms in the sea. Elsevier Sci. Publ. B.V., Amsterdam.

Martin, J.L., K. Haya, L.E. Burridge, and D.J. Wildish. 1990. Nitzschia pseudodelicatissima - a source of domoic acid in the Bay of Fundy, eastern Canada. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 67: 177-182. (Open Access PDF file; 735 KB)

Martin, J.L., M.M. Le Gresley, and D.J.A. Richard. 1998. Toxic phytoplankton, PSP and ASP toxicity data during the years 1988-1996 from the southwest Bay of Fundy, eastern Canada, p.233-134. In: B. Reguera, J. Blanco, M.L. Fernández, and T. Wyatt [eds.] Harmful algae. Xunta de Galicia and the IOC of UNESCO, Paris. (Website to download the Proceedings)

McCabe, R.M., B.M. Hickey, R.M. Kudela, K.A. Lefebvre, N.G. Adams, B.D. Bill, F.M.D. Gulland, R.E. Thomson, W.P. Cochlan, and V.L. Trainer. 2016. An unprecedented coastwide toxic algal bloom linked to anomalous ocean conditions. Geophys. Res. Lett. 43: 10,366–10,376. [discusses the western North America toxic Pseudo-nitzschia australis bloom of 2015] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

McCoy, G.R., N. Touzet, G.T.A. Fleming, and R. Raine. 2013. An evaluation of the applicability of microarrays for monitoring toxic algae in Irish coastal waters. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 20:6751-6764. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

McDonald, S.M., D. Sarno, and A. Zingone. 2007. Identifying Pseudo-nitzschia species in natural samples using genus-specific PCR primers and clone libraries. Harmful Algae 6: 849-860. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Recent Update - Added: October 16, 2017: 

McKinnell, S. 2017. Atmospheric and oceanic extrema in 2015 and 2016 and their effect on North American salmon. Pacific Salmon Comm. Tech. Rep. No. 37, 88 p. [mentions Pseudo-nitzschia fraudulenta] (PDF file; 8.2 MB)

McManus, M.A., R.M. Kudela, M.W. Silver, G.F. Steward, P.L. Donaghay, and J.M. Sullivan. 2008. Cryptic blooms: Are thin layers the missing connection? Estuaries and Coasts 31: 396-401 [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia australis] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

McManus, M.A., R.M. Kudela, M.W. Silver, G.F. Steward, P.L. Donaghay, and J.M. Sullivan. 2008. Cryptic blooms: are thin layers the missing connection? Estuaries and Coasts 31: 396-401. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp. in Monterey Bay, California] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

McMinn, A., H. Heijnis, A. Murray, and G. Hallegraeff. 2004. Diatom and dinoflagellate assemblages of the Hawkesbury River, N.S.W., over the last two centuries: evidence for changes in hydrology. Alcheringa Australasian J. Palaeontol. 28: 505-514. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia pungens] (PDF file from ResearchGate) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Medlin, L.K. and J.U. Kegel. 2014. Validation of the detection of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. using specific RNA probes tested in a microarray format: calibration of signal based on variability of RNA content with environmental conditions. Harmful Algae 37: 183-193. (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Medrano, R.E.O. 2012. Patrones de distribución y abundancia del fitoplancton nocivo en la zona costera de Tuxpan, Veracruz; México. Master's Thesis, Universidad Veracruzana, Tuxpan, Mexico, 190 p. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (in Spanish) (Link to PDF file)

Méndez, S. and M. Ferrario. 2009. First report of Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata in Uruguay – January 2009. Harmful Algae News, No. 40, p. 5-6. (PDF version of HAN No. 40; 9 MB)

Méndez, S.M., M. Ferrario, and A.O. Cefarelli. 2012. Description of toxigenic species of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia in coastal waters of Uruguay: morphology and distribution. Harmful Algae 19: 53-60. [discusses P. australis, P. delicatissima, P. fraudulenta, P. multiseries, P. multistriata, P. pungens] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Menezes Rangel, I. and S. Silva. 2007. Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and Prorocentrum micans blooms in Luanda Bay, Angola. Harmful Algae News, No. 33, p. 8-9. (PDF file of HAN No. 33; 3.3 MB)

Mengelt, C. and B.B. Prézelin. 2002. A potential novel link between organic nitrogen loading and Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms, p. 882-896. In: O.T. Magoon, H. Converse, B. Baird, B. Jines, and M. Miller-Henson [eds.] Part of revisiting and revising California's ocean agenda, California and the World Ocean ‘02, Santa Barbara, California, USA, October 27-30, 2002. (Abstract and link to PDF file)

Mengelt, C. and B.B. Prézelin. 2004. Dark survival and subsequent light recovery for Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries, p. 388-390. In: K.A. Steidinger, J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo [eds.] Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris. (PDF file) (Website for all PDF files of the Proceedings)

Mengelt, C. and B.B. Prézelin. 2005. UVA enhancement of carbon fixation and elevated resilience to UV inhibition for the genus Pseudo-nitzschia may provide competitive advantage in high UV surface waters. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 301: 81–93. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file) (Link to PDF file outside DFO's website)

Mengelt, Claudia. 2006. Ultraviolet photoecology, dark survival, and seasonal abundance of Pseudo-nitzschia australis and Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries in coastal waters of central California. PhD Thesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, 208 p. (Abstract and link to PDF file)

Míguez, Á., M.L. Fernández, and S. Fraga. 1996. First detection of domoic acid in Galicia (NW of Spain), p. 143-145. In: T. Yasumoto, Y. Oshima, and Y. Fukuyo [eds.] Harmful and toxic algal blooms, Intergov. Oceanogr. Comm., UNESCO, Paris.

Miller, P.E. and C.A. Scholin. 1996. Identification of cultured Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) using species-specific LSU rRNA-targeted fluorescent probes. J. Phycol. 32: 646-655. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Miller, P.E. and C.A. Scholin. 1998. Identification and enumeration of cultured and wild Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) using species-specific LSU rRNA-targeted fluorescent probes and filter-based whole cell hybridization. J. Phycol. 34: 371-382. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Miller, P.E. and C.A. Scholin. 2000. On detection of Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) species using whole cell hybridization: sample fixation and stability. J. Phycol. 36: 238-250. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Miller, P.E., M. Roman III, C. Scholin, J.C. Goldman, G. Doucette, and C. Powell. 2004. Variation in reactivity of rRNA-targeted probes towards Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries grown in nitrate- and silicate-limited continuous cultures, p. 270-272. In: K.A. Steidinger, J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo [eds.] Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris. (PDF file) (Website for all PDF files of the Proceedings)

Miller, R.L. and D.L. Kamykowski. 1986. Effects of temperature, salinity, irradiance and diurnal periodicity on growth and photosynthesis in the diatom Nitzschia americana: light-limited growth. J. Plankton Res. 8: 215-228. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Miller, R.L. and D.L. Kamykowski. 1986. Effects of temperature, salinity, irradiance and diurnal periodicity on growth and photosynthesis in the diatom Nitzschia americana: light-saturated growth. J. Phycol. 22: 339-348. (PDF file; 4.4 MB) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Miller, R.L. and D.L. Kamykowski. 1986. Short-term photosynthetic responses in the diatom Nitzschia americana to a simulated salinity environment. J. Plankton Res. 8: 305-315. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Moccia, Lauren Paul. 2008. Cloning and characterization of a novel ferritin from the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. M.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 87 p. (PDF file; 3.15 MB)

Moestrup, Ø. and N. Lundholm. 2002. Diatoms (Class Bacillariophyceae, Phylum Heterokontae). In: IOC Taxonomic Reference List of Toxic Algae, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO. (IOC searchable website version)

Mogensen, H.M. 2014. Investigating complex phytoplankton dynamics: Pseudo-nitzschia spp. diversity and toxicity in the nearshore Gulf of Maine. Honors Project, Department of Biological Sciences, Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts. 79 p. [includes P. americana, P. cuspidata, P. delicatissima, P. fraudulenta, P. heimii, P. pungens, P. seriata, P. plurisecta] (Abstract in Smith College library and link to PDF file)

Moreira González, A. (2013) Florecimiento de la diatomea potencialmente tóxica Pseudo‐nitzschia cf. multistriata en aguas cubanas /Bloom of the potentially toxic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia cf. multistriata in Cuban waters. Rev. Invest. Mar. 33: 27‐30. [in Spanish] (PDF file; 417 KB) (Publisher’s abstract, in English and Spanish)

Morozova T.V., T.Y. Orlova, and M.S. Selina. 2002. Phytoplankton in the scallop culture area in Minonosok Bight (Pos'eta Bay, Sea of Japan). Russ. J. Mar. Biol. 28: 94-99. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Moschandreou, K.K. and G. Nikolaidis. 2010. The genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) in Greek coastal waters. Bot. Mar. 53: 159-172. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Moschandreou, K.K., A.D. Baxevanis, P. Katikou, D. Papaefthimiou, G. Nikolaidis, and T.J. Abatzopoulos. 2012. Inter- and intra-specific diversity of Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) in the northeastern Mediterranean. Eur. J. Phycol. 47: 321–339. [discusses P. brasiliana, P. subpacifica, P. hasleana, P. calliantha, P. delicatissima, P. fraudulenta, P. galaxiae, P. mannii, P. multistriata, P. pseudodelicatissima, P. pungens var. pungens, P. subfraudulenta] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Moschandreou, K.K., D. Papaefthimiou, P. Katikou, E. Kalopesa, A. Panou, and G. Nikolaidis. 2010. Morphology, phylogeny and toxin analysis of Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima (Bacillariophyceae) isolated from the Thermaikos Gulf, Greece. Phycologia 49: 260-273. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Moschonas, G., R.J. Gowen, R.F. Paterson, E. Mitchell, B.M. Stewart, S. McNeill, P.M. Glibert, and K. Davidson. 2017. Nitrogen dynamics and phytoplankton community structure: the role of organic nutrients. Biogeochemistry 134: 125-145. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp. group seriata and Pseudo-nitzschia spp. group delicatissima] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Naz, T., Z. Burhan, S. Munirn, and P.J.A. Siddiqui. 2011. Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (Grunow ex. Cleve) Hasle from Pakistan coastal waters. Harmful Algae News, No. 44, p. 9. (PDF file HAN No. 44; 6.5 MB)

Naz, T., Z.-U.-N. Burhan, S. Munir, and P.J.A. Siddiqui. 2012. Taxonomy and seasonal distribution of Pseudo-nitzschia species (Bacillariophyceae) from the coastal waters of Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot. 44: 1467-1473. (PDF file; 1.4 MB)

Negri, R.M. and D. Inza. 1998. Some potentially toxic species of Pseudo-nitzschia in the Argentine Sea (35° - 39°S), p. 84-85. In: B. Reguera, J. Blanco, M.L. Fernández, and T. Wyatt [eds.] Harmful algae. Xunta de Galicia and the IOC of UNESCO, Paris. (Website to download the Proceedings)

Negri, R.M., N.G. Montoya, J.I. Carreto, R. Akselman, and D. Inza. 2004. Pseudo-nitzschia australis, Mytilus edulis, Engraulis anchoita, and domoic acid in the Argentine Sea, p. 139-141. In: K.A. Steidinger, J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo [eds.] Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris. (PDF file) (Website for all PDF files of the Proceedings)

Nezan, E., E. Antoine, L. Fiant, Z. Amzil, and C. Billard. 2006. Identification of Pseudo-nitzschia australis and P. multiseries in the Bay of Seine. Was there a relation to presence of domoic acid in king scallops in autumn 2004? Harmful Algae News, No. 31, p. 1-3. (PDF file of article from Ifremer) (PDF file of HAN No. 31; 2.69 MB)

Nezan, E., N. Chomerat, and M.P. Crassous. 2007. First record of diatom Pseudo-nitzschia americana in French waters. Harmful Algae News No. 33, p. 18-19. (PDF file of HAN No. 33; 3.3 MB)

Nézan, E., N. Chomérat, G. Bilien, S. Boulben, A. Duval, and M. Ryckaer. 2010. Pseudo-nitzschia australis on French Atlantic coast – an unusual toxic bloom. Harmful Algae News, No. 41, p. 1-2. (PDF file in HAN No. 41)

Nezan, E., N. Chomerat, M.P. Crassous, and E. Antoine. 2007. Identification of Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata and P. subpacifica from French waters. Were they part of the cryptic flora? Harmful Algae News, No. 35, p. 5-6. (PDF file of HAN 35; 1.74 MB)

Nikolaidis, G., K. Koukaras, K. Aligizaki, A. Heracleous, E. Kalopesa, K. Moschandreou, E. Tsolaki, and A. Mantoudis. 2005. Harmful microalgal episodes in Greek coastal waters. J. Biol. Res. 3: 77-85. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia species] (PDF file; 712 KB)

Noyer, C., A. Abot, L. Trouilh, V.A. Leberre, and C. Dreanno. 2015. Phytochip: development of a DNA-microarray for rapid and accurate identification of Pseudo-nitzschia spp and other harmful algal species. J. Microbiol. Meth. 112: 55–66. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

O'Dea, Sheila. 2012. Occurrence, toxicity, and diversity of Pseudo-nitzschia in Florida coastal waters. Master of Science Thesis, University of South Florida, 103 p. [discusses P. brasiliana, P. micropora, P. calliantha, P. cuspidata, P. pungens] (PDF file; 2.3 MB)

O'Higgins, L. 2005. An investigation of domoic acid producing diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) from coastal and shelf waters of Northwest Europe. PhD thesis, National University of Ireland, Galway, 199 p.

Odebrecht, C., M.E. Ferrario, A.M. Ciotti, D. Kitzmann, M. Odete P. Moreira, and F. Hinz. 2001. The distribution of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia off southern Brazil and relationships with oceanographic conditions, p. 42-45. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, S.I. Blackburn, C.J. Bolch, and R.J. Lewis [eds.] Harmful Algal Blooms 2000. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris.

Archived File

The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF file; 422 KB)

Ohana-Richardson, A. 2007. Population ecology of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia within the South Slough, Charleston, Oregon. Master's Thesis, University of Oregon, Oregon Institute of Marine Biology, Charleston, OR, USA, 116 p. (PDF file; 7.4 MB)

Okolodkov, Y.B., J.A. Aké-Castillo, G. Campos-Bautista, R. Lara-Martínez, and L.F. Jiménez-García. 2015. Dinámica anual del género Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) en el Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano, p. 235-252. In: A. Granados-Barba, L. Ortiz-Lozano, D. Salas-Monreal, and C. González-Gándara (eds.) Aportes al conocimiento del Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano: hacia el Corredor Arrecifal del Suroeste del Golfo de México. Universidad Veracruzana. (in Spanish) [discusses P. caciantha] (Download PDF file from ResearchGate)

Omura, T. 2010. Pseudo-nitzschia species in San Pedro Bay, Leyte Philippines, p. 6-7. In: Ho, K.-C., M.J. Zhou, and Y.Z. Qi [eds.] Harmful algae 2008. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Harmful Algae, 3-7 November 2008, Hong Kong, China. International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae, Environmental Publ. House, Hong Kong. (Ordering information and link to Table of Contents)

Orellana, M.V., T.W. Petersen, and G. van den Engh. 2004. UV-excited blue autofluorescence of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (Bacillariophyceae). J. Phycol. 40: 705-710. (Publisher's abstract)

Orive, E., A. Laza-Martinez, S. Seoane, and A. Alonso. 2010. Diversity of Pseudo-nitzschia in the southeastern Bay of Biscay. Diatom Res. 25: 125-145. [discusses P. australis, P. fraudulenta, P. pungens, P. subpacifica, P. arenysensis, P. galaxiae, P. multistriata, P. pseudodelicatissima] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Archived File

The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF file; 3.3 MB)

Orive, E., L. Pérez-Aicua, H. David, K. García-Etxebarria, A. Laza-Martínez, S. Seoane, and I. Miguel. 2013. The genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) in a temperate estuary with description of two new species: Pseudo-nitzschia plurisecta sp. nov. and Pseudo-nitzschia abrensis sp. nov. J. Phycol. 49: 1192-1206. [mentions P. inflatula] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Orlova, T. Y., Zhukova, N. V., and Stonik, I. V. 1996. Bloom-forming diatom Pseudonitzschia pungens in Amurskii Bay (The Sea of Japan), p. 147-150. In: T. Yasumoto, Y. Oshima, and Y. Fukuyo [eds.] Harmful and toxic algal blooms. Intergov. Oceanogr. Comm., UNESCO, Paris.

Orlova, T. Yu. and T.V. Morozova. 2009. Resting stages of microalgae in recent marine sediments of Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan. Russ. J. Mar. Biol. 35: 313-322. [shows a resting stage image for Pseudo-nitzschia sp.] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Orlova, T.Y. and O.G. Shevchenko. 2002. The first finding of Pseudo-nitzschia americana (Bacillariophyta) in Russian seas. Russ. J. Mar. Biol. 28: 336-339. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Orlova, T.Y., I.V. Stonik, N.A. Aizdaicher, S.S. Bates, C. Léger, and J. Fehling. 2008. Toxicity, morphology and distribution of Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha, P. multistriata and P. multiseries (Bacillariophyta) from the northwestern Sea of Japan. Bot. Mar. 51: 297-306. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Orsini, L, D. Sarno, G. Procaccini, R. Poletti, J. Dahlmann, and M. Montresor. 2002. Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata (Bacillariophyceae) from the Gulf of Naples: morphology, toxin analysis and phylogenetic relationships with other Pseudo-nitzschia species. Eur. J. Phycol. 37: 247-257. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Orsini, L., G. Procaccini, D. Sarno, and M. Montresor. 2004. Multiple rDNA ITS-types within the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima (Bacillariophyceae) and their relative abundances across a spring bloom in the Gulf of Naples. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 271: 87-98. [P. multistriata toxic; P. delicatissima, P. pseudodelicatissima, P. fraudulenta, P. subfraudulenta non-toxic] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Osada, M. and J.E. Stewart. 1997. Gluconic acid/gluconolactone: physiological influences on domoic acid production by bacteria associated with Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. Aquat. Microbial. Ecol. 12: 203-209. (Open access pdf file; 655 KB)

Palma, S., H. Mouriño, A. Silva, M.I. Barão, and M.T. Moita. 2010. Can Pseudo-nitzschia blooms be modeled by coastal upwelling in Lisbon Bay? Harmful Algae 9: 294-303. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Pan, Y. 1994. Production of domoic acid, a neurotoxin, by the diatom Pseudonitzschia pungens f. multiseries Hasle under phosphate and silicate limitation. Ph.D. Thesis, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. 245 p. (Abstract)

Pan, Y. and D.V. Subba Rao. 1997. Impacts of domestic sewage effluent on phytoplankton from Bedford Basin, eastern Canada. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 34: 1001-1005. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Pan, Y., D.V. Subba Rao, and K.H. Mann. 1996. Acclimation to low light intensity in photosynthesis and growth of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries Hasle, a neurotoxigenic diatom. J. Plankton Res. 18: 1427-1438. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Pan, Y., D.V. Subba Rao, and K.H. Mann. 1996. Changes in domoic acid production and cellular chemical composition of the toxigenic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries under phosphate limitation. J. Phycol. 32: 371-381. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Pan, Y., D.V. Subba Rao, and R.E. Warnock. 1991. Photosynthesis and growth of Nitzschia pungens f. multiseries Hasle, a neurotoxin producing diatom. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 154: 77-96. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Pan, Y., D.V. Subba Rao, K.H. Mann, R.G. Brown, and R. Pocklington. 1996. Effects of silicate limitation on production of domoic acid, a neurotoxin, by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (Hasle). I. Batch culture studies. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 131: 225-233. (Open access PDF file; 877 KB) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Pan, Y., D.V. Subba Rao, K.H. Mann, W.K.W. Li, and R.E. Warnock. 1993. Temperature dependence of growth and carbon assimilation in Nitzschia pungens f. multiseries, the causative diatom of domoic acid poisoning, p. 619-624. In: T.J. Smayda and Y. Shimizu [eds.] Toxic phytoplankton blooms in the sea. Elsevier Sci. Publ. B.V., Amsterdam.

Pan, Y., D.V. Subba Rao, K.H. Mann, W.K.W. Li, and W.G. Harrison. 1996. Effects of silicate limitation on production of domoic acid, a neurotoxin, by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (Hasle). II. Continuous culture studies. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 131: 235-243. (Open access PDF file; 929 KB) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Pan, Y., M.L. Parsons, M. Busman, P.D.R. Moeller, Q. Dortch, C.L. Powell, and G.J. Doucette. 2001. Pseudo-nitzschia sp. cf. pseudodelicatissima - a confirmed producer of domoic acid from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 220: 83-92. (PDF file outside DFO's website)

Panggabean, L.M.G. 2007. Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima isolated from Hurun Bay: salinity tolerance and domoic acid content. Biota 12: 40-46. [Sumatra, Indonesia] (PDF file; 3.3 MB)

Paranjpye, R.N., W.B. Nilsson, M. Liermann, E.D. Hilborn, B.J. George, Q. Li, B.D. Bill, V.L. Trainer, M.S. Strom, and P.A. Sandifer. 2017. Environmental influences on the seasonal distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 91: 1-12. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and domoic acid] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Paredes-Banda, P., R. Cruz-López, E. García-Mendoza, I. Santiago-Morales, M.C. Ruiz-de la Torre, R. Murillo-Martínez, J.L. Peña-Manjarrez, Y. Sánchez-Bravo, and J. Medina-Elizalde, Jennifer. 2016. Estudios de ecofisiología sobre especies fitoplanctónicas nocivas en Baja California, p. 79-91. In: E. García-Mendoza, S.I. Quijano-Scheggia, A. Olivos-Ortiz, and E.J. Núñez-Vázquez [eds.] Florecimientos algales nocivos en México. Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Mexico. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia australis] (PDF file from ResearchGate; 7.4 MB)

Parrish, C.C., A.S.W. de Freitas, G. Bodennec, E.J. MacPherson, and R.G. Ackman. 1990. Unusual fatty acid composition of the toxic marine diatom Nitzschia pungens. Bull. Aquacult. Assoc. Can. 30: 15-18.

Parrish, C.C., A.S.W. de Freitas, G. Bodennec, E.J. MacPherson, and R.G. Ackman. 1991. Lipid composition of the toxic marine diatom, Nitzschia pungens. Phytochem. 30: 113-116. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Parsons, M.L., C.A. Scholin, P.E. Miller, G.J. Doucette, C.L. Powell, G.A. Fryxell, Q. Dortch, and T.M. Soniat. 1999. Pseudo-nitzschia species (Bacillariophyceae) in Louisiana coastal waters: molecular probe field trials, genetic variability, and domoic acid analyses. J. Phycol. 35: 1368-1378. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Parsons, M.L., Q. Dortch, and G.A. Fryxell. 1998. A multi-year study of the presence of potential domoic acid-producing Pseudo-nitzschia species in the coastal and estuarine waters of Louisiana, USA, p.184-1187. In: B. Reguera, J. Blanco, M.L. Fernández, and T. Wyatt [eds.] Harmful algae. Xunta de Galicia and the IOC of UNESCO, Paris. (Website to download the Proceedings)

Parsons, M.L., Q. Dortch, and G.J. Doucette. 2013. An assessment of Pseudo-nitzschia population dynamics and domoic acid production in coastal Louisiana. Harmful Algae 30: 65-77. [discusses P. delicatissima, P. multistriata, P. pseudodelicatissima] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Parsons, M.L., Q. Dortch, and R.E. Turner. 2002. Sedimentological evidence of an increase in Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) abundance in response to coastal eutrophication. Limnol. Oceanogr. 47: 551-558. (PDF file outside DFO's website)

Parsons, M.L., Y.B. Okolodkov, and J.A. Aké-Castillo. 2012. Diversity and morphology of the species of Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyta) of the national park Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano. Acta Bot. Mexicana 98: 51-72. [discusses P. brasiliana, P. calliantha, P. cuspidata, P. delicatissima, P. pseudodelicatissima, P. pungens] (Publisher's abstract and link to free PDF file)

Recent Update - Added: October 16, 2017: 

Paterson, R.F., S. McNeill, E. Mitchell, T. Adams, S.C. Swan, D. Clarke, P.I. Miller, E. Bresnan, and K. Davidson. 2017. Environmental control of harmful dinoflagellates and diatoms in a fjordic system. Harmful Algae 69: 1-17. [includes Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima group, Pseudo-nitzschia seriata group] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Patil, S., S. Moeys, P. von Dassow, M.J.J. Huysman, D. Mapleson, L. De Veylder, R. Sanges, W. Vyverman, M. Montresor, and M.I. Ferrante. 2015. Identification of the meiotic toolkit in diatoms and exploration of meiosis-specific SPO11 and RAD51 homologs in the sexual species Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata and Seminavis robusta. BMC Genomics 16: 930. (Publisher’s abstract and link to Open Access PDF file)

Pauley, K.E., M.R. Seguel, J.C. Smith, J.L. McLachlan, and J. Worms. 1993. Occurrences of phycotoxins and related phytoplankton at winter temperatures in the southeastern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada, p. 311-316. In: T.J. Smayda and Y. Shimizu [eds.] Toxic phytoplankton blooms in the sea. Elsevier Sci. Publ. B.V., Amsterdam.

Recent Update - Added: October 16, 2017: 

Pearson, G.A., A. Lago-Leston, F. Cánovas, C.J. Cox, F. Verret, S. Lasternas, C.M. Duarte, S. Agusti, and E.A. Serrão. 2015. Metatranscriptomes reveal functional variation in diatom communities from the Antarctic Peninsula. ISME J. 9: 2275-2289. [includes Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries metatranscriptomes] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Penna, A., E. Bertozzini, C. Battocchi, L. Galluzzi, M.G. Giacobbe, M. Vila, E. Garcés, A. Lugliè, and M. Magnani. 2007. Monitoring of HAB species in the Mediterranean Sea through molecular methods. J. Plankton Res. 29: 19-38. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (PDF file; 572 KB) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Penna, A., S. Casabianca, F. Perini, M. Bastianini, E. Riccardi, S. Pigozzi, and M. Scardi. 2013. Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia spp. in the northwestern Adriatic Sea: characterization of species composition by genetic and molecular quantitative analyses. J. Plankton Res. 35: 352-366. [discusses P. delicatissima, P. calliantha, P. pungens, P. mannii] (PDF file; 450 KB) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Peperzak, L., B. Sandee, C. Scholin, P. Miller, and L. Van Nieuwerburgh. 2001. Application and flow cytometric detection of antibody and rRNA probes to Gymnodinium mikimotoi (Dinophyceae) and Pseudonitzschia multiseries (Bacillariophyceae), p. 206-209. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, S.I. Blackburn, C.J. Bolch, and R.J. Lewis [eds.] Harmful Algal Blooms 2000. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris.

Archived File

The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF file; 438 KB)

Percopo, I., M.V. Ruggiero, S. Balzano, P. Gourvil, N. Lundholm, R. Siano, A. Tammilehto, D. Vaulot, and D. Sarno. 2016. Pseudo-nitzschia arctica sp. nov., a new cold-water cryptic Pseudo-nitzschia species within the P. pseudodelicatissima complex. J. Phycol. 52: 184-199. (PDF file from ResearchGate) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Peterson, W.T., J.L. Fisher, P.T. Strub, X. Du, C. Risien, J. Peterson, and C.T. Shaw. 2017. The pelagic ecosystem in the northern California Current off Oregon during the 2014-2016 warm anomalies within the context of the past 20 years. J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans (in press) [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia sp.] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Petrou, K. and P.J. Ralph. 2011. Photosynthesis and net primary productivity in three Antarctic diatoms: possible significance for their distribution in the Antarctic marine ecosystem. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 437: 27-40. [discusses P. subcurvata] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Petrou, K., M.A. Doblin, and P.J. Ralph. 2011. Heterogeneity in the photoprotective capacity of three Antarctic diatoms during short-term changes in salinity and temperature. Mar. Biol. 158: 1029-1041. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia subcurvata] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Pfaffen, S., J.M. Bradley, R. Abdulqadir, M.R. Firme, G.R. Moore, N.E. Le Brun, and M.E.P. Murphy. 2015. A diatom ferritin optimized for iron oxidation but not iron storage. J. Biol. Chem. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries] 290: 28416-28427. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Pfaffen, S., R. Abdulqadir, N.E. Le Brun, and M.E. Murphy. 2013. Mechanism of ferrous iron binding and oxidation by ferritin from a pennate diatom. J. Biol. Chem. 288: 14917-14925. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Phlips, E.J., S. Badylak, M. Christman, J. Wolny, J. Brame, J. Garland, L. Hall, J. Hart, J. Landsberg, M. Lasi, J. Lockwood, R. Paperno, D. Scheidt, A. Staples, and K. Steidinger. 2011. Scales of temporal and spatial variability in the distribution of harmful algae species in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA. Harmful Algae 10: 277-290. [includes discussion of Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha] (Publisher's abstract and link to pdf file)

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Piedras, F.R. and C. Odebrecht. 2012. The response of surf-zone phytoplankton to nutrient enrichment (Cassino Beach, Brazil). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 432-433: 156-161. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

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Pitcher, G.C., A.D. Cembella, B. Krock, B. Macey, L. Mansfield, and T. Probyn. 2014. Identification of the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (Bacillariophyceae) as a source of the toxin domoic acid in Algoa Bay, South Africa. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 36: 523-528. (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

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Poot-Delgado, C.A., Y.B. Okolodkov, J.A. Aké-Castillo, and J. Rendón-von Osten. 2015. Annual cycle of phytoplankton with emphasis on potentially harmful species in oyster beds of Términos Lagoon, southeastern Gulf of Mexico. Rev. Biol. Mar. Oceanogr. 50: 465-477. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

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Quijano-Scheggia, S., E. Garcés, E. Flo, M. Fernandez-Tejedor, J. Diogène, and J. Camp. 2008. Bloom dynamics of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) in two coastal bays (NW Mediterranean Sea). Sci. Mar. 72: 577-590. [discusses P. calliantha, P. delicatissima, P. fraudulenta, P. multistriata, P. pungens] (PDF file at publisher's website) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Quijano-Scheggia, S., E. Garcés, K. Andree, J.M. Fortuño, and J. Camp. 2009. Homothallic auxosporulation in Pseudo-nitzschia brasiliana (Bacillariophyta). J. Phycol. 45: 100-107. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

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Quijano-Scheggia, S., E. Garcés, K.B. Andree, P. de la Iglesia, J. Diogène, J.-M. Fortuño, and J. Camp. 2010. Pseudo-nitzschia species on the Catalan coast: characterization and contribution to the current knowledge of the distribution of this genus in the Mediterranean Sea. Sci. Mar. 74: 395-410. [discusses P. arenysensis, P. caciantha, P. fraudulenta, P. galaxiae, P. linea, P. cf. mannii, P. multistriata, P. pungens] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Quijano-Scheggia, S., E. Garcés, N. Sampedro, K. van Lenning, E. Flo, K. Andree, J.-M. Fortuño, and J. Camp. 2008. Identification and characterisation of the dominant Pseudo-nitzschia species (Bacillariophyceae) along the NE Spanish coast (Catalonia, NW Mediterranean). Sci. Mar. 72: 343-359. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia brasiliana, P. calliantha, P. delicatissima, P. fraudulenta, P. multistriata and P. pungens] (PDF file outside of DFO's website) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

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Rachman, A. and H. Thoha. 2014. Seasonal change in the diel pattern of the Pseudo-nitzschia population in the Cisadane River estuary: response to the changes in the water’s physical-chemical parameters. Mar. Res. Indonesia 39: 39-50. (Publisher’s abstract and link to free PDF file)

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Reap, M.E. 1991. Nitzschia pungens Grunow f. multiseries Hasle: growth phases and toxicity of clonal cultures isolated from Galveston Bay, Texas. M.Sc. Thesis, Texas A&M University. 78 p.

Rembauville, M., C. Manno, G.A. Tarling, S. Blain, and I. Salter. 2016. Strong contribution of diatom resting spores to deep-sea carbon transfer in naturally iron-fertilized waters downstream of South Georgia. Deep-Sea Res. I 115: 22-35. [mentions Pseudo-nitzschia spp., including P. lineola and P. heimii] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Réveillon, D., V. Séchet, P. Hess, and Z. Amzil 2016. Systematic detection of BMAA (β-N-methylamino-L-alanine) and DAB (2,4-diaminobutyric acid) in mollusks collected in shellfish production areas along the French coasts. Toxicon 110: 35-46. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima complex] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Rhodes, L., A. Selwood, P. McNabb, L. Briggs, J. Adamson, R. van Ginkel, and O. Laczka. 2006. Trace metal effects on the production of biotoxins by microalgae. African J. Mar. Sci. 28: 393-397. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Rhodes, L., C. Scholin, and I. Garthwaite. 1998. Pseudo-nitzschia in New Zealand and the role of DNA probes and immunoassays in refining marine biotoxin monitoring programmes. Natural Toxins 6: 105-111. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Rhodes, L., D. White, M. Syhre, and M. Atkinson. 1996. Pseudo-nitzschia species isolated from New Zealand coastal waters: domoic acid production in vitro and links with shellfish toxicity, p. 155-158. In: T. Yasumoto, Y. Oshima, and Y. Fukuyo [eds.] Harmful and toxic algal blooms, Intergov. Oceanogr. Comm., UNESCO, Paris.

Rhodes, L., J. Adamson, and C. Scholin. 2000. Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata (Bacillariophyceae) in New Zealand. New Zealand J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 34: 463-467. (PDF file from ResearchGate) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Rhodes, L., P.A.J. Holland, A. Selwood, and P. McNabb. 2004. Mass culture of Pseudo-nitzschia australis for production of a new isomer of domoic acid, p. 125-127. In: K.A. Steidinger, J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo [eds.] Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris. (PDF file) (Website for all PDF files of the Proceedings)

Rhodes, L., W. Jiang, B. Knight, J. Adamson, K. Smith, V. Langi, and M. Edgar. 2013. The genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) in New Zealand: analysis of the last decade’s monitoring data. New Zealand J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 47: 490-503. [includes P. pseudodelicatissima, P. calliantha, P. cuspidata, P. subpacifica] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Rhodes, L.L. 1998. Identification of potentially toxic Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) in New Zealand coastal waters, using lectins. New Zealand J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 32: 537-544. (Publisher's abstract and link to Open Access PDF file)

Rhodes, L.L., C. Scholin, I. Garthwaite, A. Haywood, and A. Thomas. 1998. Domoic acid producing Pseudo-nitzschia species educed by whole cell DNA probe-based and immunochemical assays, p. 274-277. In: B. Reguera, J. Blanco, M.L. Fernández, and T. Wyatt [eds.] Harmful algae. Xunta de Galicia and the IOC of UNESCO, Paris. (Website to download the Proceedings)

Rhodes, L.L., P.T. Holland, J.E. Adamson, P. McNabb, and A.I. Selwood. 2003. Production of a new isomer of domoic acid by New Zealand isolates of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia australis, p. 43-48. In: A. Villalba, B. Reguera, J.L. Romalde, and R. Beiras [eds.] Molluscan shellfish safety. Xunta de Galicia and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris. (PDF file outside of DFO's website) (Website to order the Proceedings)

Ribalet, F., A. Marchetti, K.A. Hubbard, K. Brown, C.A. Durkin, R. Morales, M. Robert, J.E. Swalwell, P.D. Tortell, and E.V. Armbrust. 2010. Unveiling a phytoplankton hotspot at a narrow boundary between coastal and offshore waters. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107: 38 16571-16576. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Rines, J.E.B., P.L. Donaghay, M.M. Dekshenieks, J.M. Sullivan, and M.S. Twardowski. 2002. Thin layers and camouflage: hidden Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) populations in a fjord in the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 225: 123-137. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Rivard, L. 1992. The effect of temperature on enzyme activity in Nitzschia pungens forma pungens and forma multiseries. Honours Thesis, Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick, Canada. 31 p.

Rivera-Vilarelle, M., S. Quijano-Scheggia, A. Olivos-Ortiz, J.H. Gaviño-Rodríguez, F. Castro-Ochoa, and A. Reyes-Herrera. 2013. The genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) in Manzanillo and Santiago Bays, Colima, Mexico. Bot. Mar. 56: 357–373. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia americana, P. australis, P. brasiliana, P. delicatissima, P. cf. delicatissima, P. dolorosa, P. cf. fryxelliana, P. micropora, P. multistriata, P. pungens var. aveirensis, P. subfraudulenta] (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

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Archived File

The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF file; 322 KB)

Romero, M.L.J., T. Lirdwitayaprasit, Y. Kotaki, N. Lundholm, R.J. Relox, Jr., E.F. Furio, R. Terada, T. Yokoyama, M. Kodama, and Y. Fukuyo. 2008. Isolation of ASP toxin-producing Nitzschia from Thailand. Mar. Res. Indones. 33: 225-228. [discusses Nitzschia navis-varingica] (PDF file in ResearchGate; 362 KB)

Romero, M.L.J., Y. Kotaki, J. Relox, Jr., N. Lundholm, Y. Takata, M. Kodama, and Y. Fukuyo. 2012. Two new ASP toxin production types in strains of Nitzschia navis-varingica from the Philippines. Coastal Mar. Sci. 35: 67-69. (Link to UP Repository abstract and PDF file)

Romero, M.L.J., Y. Kotaki, N. Lundholm, H. Thoha, H. Ogawa, J.R. Relox, R. Terada, S. Takeda, Y. Takata, K. Haraguchi, T. Endo, P.-T. Lim, M. Kodama, and Y. Fukuyo. 2011. Unique amnesic shellfish toxin composition found in the South East Asian diatom Nitzschia navis-varingica. Harmful Algae 10: 456–462. (Publisher's abstract and link to pdf file)

Rosenberg, Lily. 2016. NOAA phytoplankton monitoring program: understanding ecosystem conditions for phytoplankton in Kachemak Bay. Bachelor of Arts Thesis. Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, MA, USA, 82 p. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Abstract) (PDF file; 8.3 MB)

Rosowski, J.R., L.M. Johnson, and D.G. Mann. 1992. On the report of gametogenesis, oogamy, and uniflagellated sperm in the pennate diatom Nitzschia pungens (1991. J. Phycol. 27: 21-26). J. Phycol. 28: 570-574.

Ross, N.W. and S.S. Bates. 1996. Electro-immunoblotting characterization of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. pungens antigens recognized by antibodies directed against whole cells. J. Appl. Phycol. 8: 51-58. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Rue, E. and K. Bruland. 2001. Domoic acid binds iron and copper: a possible role for the toxin produced by the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia. Mar. Chem. 76: 127-134. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file) (PDF file; 158 KB)

Ruggiero, M.V., D. Sarno, L. Barra, W.H.C.F. Kooistra, M. Montresor, and A. Zingone. 2015. Diversity and temporal pattern of Pseudo-nitzschia species (Bacillariophyceae) through the molecular lens. Harmful Algae 42: 15-24. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia linea, P. hasleana, P. fraudulenta, P. subfraudulenta, P. multistriata, P. galaxiae, P. arenysensis, P. delicatissima, P. dolorosa, P. calliantha, P. mannii] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Ruiz-Ruiz, T.M., J.A. Arreola-Lizárraga, L. Morquecho, L.C. Mendez-Rodríguez, A. Martínez-López, and R.A. Mendoza-Salgado. 2017. Detecting eutrophication symptoms in a subtropical semi-arid coastal lagoon by means of three different methods. Wetlands (in press) [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Ryabushko, L.I., S. Besiktepe, D. Ediger, D. Yilmaz, A. Zenginer, V.I. Ryabushko, and R.I. Lee. 2008. Toxic diatom of Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha Lundholm, Moestrup et Hasle from the Black Sea: morphology, taxonomy, ecology. Mar. Ecol. J. ECOSI-Gidrofizika, Sevastopol 7: 51-60. (in Russian, with English abstract) [discusses domoic acid production by P. calliantha] (Alternate link to English abstract and PDF file) (Link to abstract and open access PDF file)

Ryan, J., D. Greenfield, R. Marin, III, C. Preston, B. Roman, S. Jensen, D. Pargett, J. Birch, C. Mikulski, G. Doucette, and C. Scholin. 2011. Harmful phytoplankton ecology studies using an autonomous molecular analytical and ocean observing network. Limnol. Oceanogr. 56: 1255-1272. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and domoic acid] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Ryan, J.P., R.M. Kudela, J.M. Birch, M. Blum, H.A. Bowers, F.P. Chavez, G.J. Doucette, K. Hayashi, R. Marin III, C.M. Mikulski, J.T. Pennington, C.A. Scholin, G.J. Smith, A. Woods, and Y. Zhang. 2017. Causality of an extreme harmful algal bloom in Monterey Bay, California, during the 2014–2016 northeast Pacific warm anomaly. Geophys. Res. Lett. 44: 5571-5579. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia australis] (PDF file in ResearchGate; 1.0 MB) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Ryan, J.P., F.P. Chavez, and J.G. Bellingham. 2005. Physical-biological coupling in Monterey Bay, California: topographic influences on phytoplankton ecology. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 287: 23-32. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia australis in a thin layer] (Publisher's abstract and link to free PDF file)

Ryan, J.P., M.A. McManus, R.M. Kudela, M. Lara Artigas, J.G. Bellingham, F.P. Chavez, G. Doucette, D. Foley, M. Godin, J.B.J. Harvey, R. Marin III, M. Messié, C. Mikulski, T. Pennington, F. Py, K. Rajan, I. Shulman, Z. Wang, and Y. Zhang. 2013. Boundary influences on phytoplankton ecology in a stratification-enhanced upwelling shadow. Deep-Sea Res. II. 101: 63–79. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.01.017 (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Sabatino, V., M.T. Russo, S. Patil, G. d’Ippolito, A. Fontana, and M.I. Ferrante. 2015. Establishment of genetic transformation in the sexually reproducing diatoms Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata and Pseudo-nitzschia arenysensis and inheritance of the transgene. Mar. Biotechnol. 17: 452-462. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Sackett, O., K. Petrou, B. Reedy, A. De Grazia, R. Hill, M. Doblin, J. Beardall, P. Ralph, and P. Heraud. 2013. Phenotypic plasticity of Southern Ocean diatoms: key to success in the sea ice habitat? PLoS ONE 8: e81185. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia subcurvata] (Open Access PDF file) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Sackmann, B. and M.J. Perry. 2006. Ocean color observations of a surface water transport event: implications for Pseudo-nitzschia on the Washington coast. Harmful Algae 5: 608-619. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Sahraoui, I., A. Sakka Hlaili, and H. Hadj Mabrouk. 2007. Occurrence of the potentially toxic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia in Bizerte lagoon (Western Mediterranean). Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer Médit. 38: 389 (PDF file; 87 KB)

Sahraoui, I., A. Sakka Hlaili, and S.S. Bates. 2006. First detection of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha in Bizerte Lagoon, Tunisia. Harmful Algae News, No. 30, p. 8-9. (PDF file of HAN No. 30; 3.3 MB)

Sahraoui, I., A. Sakka Hlaili, D. Bouchouicha, and H. Hadj Mabrouk. 2009. Some potentially toxic dinoflagellates associated with a Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima spring bloom in Bizerte Lagoon (Western Mediterranean). In: P. Lassus [ed.] 7th International Conference on Molluscan Shellfish Safety, Nantes, France, 6 p. (Publisher's abstract and link to free PDF file)

Sahraoui, I., A. Sakka Hlaili, H. Hadj Mabrouk, C. Léger, and S.S. Bates. 2009. Blooms of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia H. Peragallo in Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia, SW Mediterranean). Diatom Res. 24: 175-190. [discusses P. calliantha]. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Archived File

The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF; 974 KB)

Sahraoui, I., B. Grami, S.S. Bates, D. Bouchouicha, M.A. Chikhaoui, H. Hadj Mabrouka, and A. Sakka Hlaili. 2012. Response of potentially toxic Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) populations and domoic acid to environmental conditions in a eutrophied, SW Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Tunisia). Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 102-103: 95-104. (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Sahraoui, I., S.S. Bates, D. Bouchouicha, H. Hadj Mabrouk, and A. Sakka Hlaili. 2011. Toxicity of Pseudo-nitzschia populations from Bizerte Lagoon, Tunisia, southwest Mediterranean, and first report of domoic acid production by P. brasiliana. Diatom Res. 26: 293-303. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Sahraoui, Inès. 2010. Écologie, diversité et toxicité des diatomées du genre Pseudo-nitzschia H. Peragallo dans la lagune de Bizerte. PhD Thesis, Université 7 Novembre à Carthage, Bizerte, Tunisia, 267 p.

Sakka Hlaili, A., D. Bouchouicha Smida, I. Sahraoui, N. Lundholm, W. Kooistra, and H. Hadj Mabrouk. 2013. Nitzschia bizertensis sp. nov.: a new toxic diatom isolated from a southwestern Mediterranean lagoon of Bizerte. Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer Médit. 40: 384. (PDF file; 28 KB)

Sala, S.E., E.A. Sar, and M.E. Ferrario. 1998. Review of materials reported as containing Amphora coffeaeformis (Agardh) Kützing in Argentina. Diatom Res. 13: 323-336. [discusses the uncertain identity of this species as relates to domoic acid production] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Santamaria, G., C.L. Esposito, L. Cerchia, G. Benvenuto, D. Nanjappa, D. Sarno, A. Zingone, V. De Franciscis, and M. Ribera d’Alcalà. 2015. Aptamers are an innovative and promising tool for phytoplankton taxonomy and biodiversity research. Chem. Ecol. 31: 92-103. [Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata was used as a counter-selection diatom] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Santiago-Morales, I.S. and E. García-Mendoza, 2011. Growth and domoic acid content of Pseudo-nitzschia australis isolated from northwestern Baja California, Mexico, cultured under batch conditions at different temperatures and two Si:NO3 ratios. Harmful Algae 12: 82-94. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Santiago-Morales, Ivonne Sandra. 2011. Potencial tóxico de cepas de Pseudo-nitzschia aisladas de la costa occidental de Baja California. [Toxic potential of Pseudo-nitzschia strains isolated from the west coast of Baja California]. PhD Thesis. Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada. Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico. September 14. 161 p. (Link to PDF file)

Sapp, M., A. Wichels, and G. Gerdts. 2007. Impacts of cultivation of marine diatoms on the associated bacterial community. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 3117-3120. [discusses changes in the bacterial community within a Pseudo-nitzschia pungens culture] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Sar, E.A., D. Andrinolo, and I. Sunesen. 2006. Morphological and toxicological analysis of cultures of Pseudo-nitzschia pungens var. pungens (Bacillariophyceae). Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 41: 193-201. (in Spanish: Análisis morfológico y toxicológico de cultivos de Pseudo-nitzschia pungens var. pungens (Bacillariophyceae).) (Publisher's abstract and link to Open Access PDF file)

Sar, E.A., M.E. Ferrario, and C. Castaños. 1998. Authentication of the type material of Pseudo-nitzschia australis Frenguelli. Diatom Res. 13: 183-185. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Sarno, D. and J. Dahlmann. 2000. Production of domoic acid in another species of Pseudo-nitzschia: P. multistriata in the Gulf of Naples (Mediterranean Sea). Harmful Algae News, No. 21, p. 5.

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Sastre, A., N. Santinelli, J. Esteves, and M. Ferrario. 2001. Aspectos ecológicos de especies de Pseudo-nitzschia en aguas costeras patagónicas (Argentina), p. 217-235. In: K. Alveal and T. Antezana [eds.] Sustentabilidad de la biodiversidad. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile.

Sastre, V., N. Santinelli, G. Marino, M. Solís, L. Pujato, and M.E. Ferrario. 2007. First detection of domoic acid produced by Pseudo-nitzschia species, Chubut coastal waters (Patagonia, Argentina). Harmful Algae News, No. 34, p. 12-14. [discusses P. fraudulenta, P. pungens] (PDF file of issue 34 of Harmful Algae News; 3 MB)

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Schnetzer, A., P.E. Miller, R.A. Schaffner, B.A. Stauffer, B.H. Jones, S.B. Weisberg, P.M. DiGiacomo, W.M. Berelson, and D.A. Caron. 2007. Blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia and domoic acid in the San Pedro Channel and Los Angeles harbor areas of the Southern California Bight, 2003-2004. Harmful Algae 6: 372-387. (PDF version outside DFO's website) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

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Scholin, C., P. Miller, K. Buck, and F. Chavez. 1997. Detection and quantification of Pseudo-nitzschia australis in cultured and natural populations using LSU rRNA-targeted probes. Limnol. Oceanogr. 42: 1265-1272. (Publisher's PDF file)

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Scholin, C.A., M.C. Villac, K.R. Buck, K.M. Krupp, D.A. Powers, G.A. Fryxell, and F.P. Chavez. 1994. Ribosomal DNA sequences discriminate among toxic and non-toxic Pseudonitzschia species. Natural Toxins 2: 152-165.

Scholin, C.A., P. Miller, K. Buck, F. Chavez, G. Cangelosi, P. Haydock, J. Howard, and P. Harris. 1996. DNA probe-based detection of harmful algal species using Pseudo-nitzschia species as models, p. 439-442. In: T. Yasumoto, Y. Oshima, and Y. Fukuyo [eds.] Harmful and toxic algal blooms, Intergov. Oceanogr. Comm., UNESCO, Paris.

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Seeyave, S., T.A. Probyn, G.C. Pitcher, M.I. Lucas, and D.A. Purdie. 2009. Nitrogen nutrition in assemblages dominated by Pseudo-nitzschia spp., Alexandrium catenella and Dinophysis acuminata off the west coast of South Africa. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 379: 91-107. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Seguel, M.R. 1991. Interactive effects of temperature-light and temperature-salinity on growth of five phytoplanktonic species isolated from a shallow-water embayment of Nova Scotia. M.Sc. Thesis, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada. 218 p.

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Sekula-Wood, E., C. Benitez-Nelson, S. Morton, C. Anderson, C. Burrell, and R. Thunell. 2011. Pseudo-nitzschia and domoic acid fluxes in Santa Barbara Basin (CA) from 1993 to 2008. Harmful Algae 10: 567-575. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Seoane, S., A. Puente, X. Guinda, and J.A. Juanes. 2012. Bloom forming and toxic phytoplankton in transitional and coastal waters of Cantabria region coast (Southeastern Bay of Biscay, Spain). Mar. Pollut. Bull. 64: 2860–2866. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia blooms] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Seubert, E.L., A.G. Gellene, V. Campbell, J. Smith, G. Robertson, and D.A. Caron. 2017. Incubation experiments to determine the response of a natural plankton community to treated sewage effluent. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 186, Part B: 250-262. [discusses domoic acid and Pseudo-nitzschia] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Seubert, E.L., A.G. Gellene, M.D.A. Howard, P. Connell, M. Ragan, B.H. Jones, J. Runyan, and D.A. Caron. 2013. Seasonal and annual dynamics of harmful algae and algal toxins revealed through weekly monitoring at two coastal ocean sites off southern California, USA. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 20: 6878-6895. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia blooms] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Seubert, E.L., A.G. Gellene, V. Campbell, J. Smith, G. Robertson, and D.A. Caron. 2017. Incubation experiments to determine the response of a natural plankton community to treated sewage effluent. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 186: 250-262. [discusses domoic acid and Pseudo-nitzschia] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Shanks, A.L. and A. McCulloch. 2003. Fortnightly periodicity in the abundance of diatom and dinoflagellate taxa at a coastal study site. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 296: 113-126. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Shanks, A.L., P. Sheesley, and L. Johnson. 2017. Phytoplankton subsidies to the inter-tidal zone are strongly affected by surf-zone hydrodynamics. Mar. Ecol. 38: e12441. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Shanks, A.L., S.G. Morgan, J. MacMahan, A.J.H.M. Reniers, M. Jarvis, J. Brown, A. Fujimura, and C. Griesemer. 2014. Onshore transport of plankton by internal tides and upwelling-relaxation events. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 502: 39-51. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Open Access PDF file; 529 KB) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Shanks, A.L., S.G. Morgan, J. MacMahan, A.J.H.M. Reniers, R. Kudela, M. Jarvis, J. Brown, A. Fujimura, L. Ziccarelli, and C. Griesemer. 2016. Variation in the abundance of Pseudo-nitzschia and domoic acid with surf zone type. Harmful Algae 55: 172-178. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Shuler, A.J., J. Paternoster, M. Brim, K. Nowocin, T. Tisdale, K. Neller, J.A. Cahill, T.A. Leighfield, S. Fire, Z. Wang, and S. Morton. 2012. Spatial and temporal trends of the toxic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia in the southeastern Atlantic United States. Harmful Algae 17: 6–13. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Sierra-Beltrán, A.P., R. Cortés-Altamirano, J. P. Gallo-Reynoso, S. Licea-Duran, and J. Égido-Villarreal. 2005. Is Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima toxin the principal cause of sardines, dolphins, sea lions and pelicans mortality in 2004 in Mexico? Harmful Algae News, No. 29, p. 6-8. (PDF file of HAN No. 29; 1.6 MB)

Silver, M.W., S. Bargu, S.L. Coale, C.R. Benitez-Nelson, A.C. Garcia, K.J. Roberts, E. Sekula-Wood, K.W. Bruland, and K.H. Coale. 2010. Toxic diatoms and domoic acid in natural and iron enriched waters of the oceanic Pacific. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107: 20762-20767. [discusses toxigenic oceanic Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Free Access PDF file via PubMed Central; 223 KB) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Siopsis, M. 2003. An individual-based model for the toxic algae species Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. PhD Thesis. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 112 p. (PDF file)

Sison-Mangus, M.P., S. Jiang, K.N. Tran, and R.M. Kudela. 2014. Host-specific adaptation governs the interaction of the marine diatom, Pseudo-nitzschia and their microbiota. ISME J. 8: 63–76. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Sison-Mangus, M.P., S. Jiang, R.M. Kudela, and S. Mehic. 2016. Phytoplankton-associated bacterial community composition and succession during toxic diatom bloom and non-bloom events. Front. Microbiol. 7: Article 1433. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia fraudulenta] and P. australis] (Publisher’s abstract and link to Open Access PDF file)

Skov, J., N. Lundholm, Ø. Moestrup, and J. Larsen. 1999. Potentially toxic phytoplankton. 4. The diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Diatomophyceae/Bacillariophyceae), pp. 1-23. In: J.A. Lindley [ed.] ICES identification leaflets for phytoplankton, Leaflet No. 185. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen. (PDF file)

Skov, J., N. Lundholm, R. Pocklington, and Ø. Moestrup. 1997. Studies on the marine planktonic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia. 1. Isozyme variation among isolates of P. pseudodelicatissima during a bloom in Danish coastal waters. Phycologia 36: 374- 380. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Smeti, E., D.L. Roelke, G. Gremion, J.M. Linhart, D.B. Danielidis, and S. Spatharis. 2015. Potential mechanisms of coexistence between two globally important Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyta) species. Hydrobiologia 762: 89-101. [discusses P. delicatissima and P. galaxiae] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Smith, G.J., N. Ladizinsky, and P.E. Miller. 2001. Amino acid profiles in species and strains of Pseudo-nitzschia from Monterey Bay, California: insights into the metabolic role(s) of domoic acid, p. 323-326. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, S.I. Blackburn, C.J. Bolch, and R.J. Lewis [eds.] Harmful Algal Blooms 2000. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris. (PDF file; 209 KB)

Smith, J.C., J.L. McLachlan, P.G. Cormier, K.E. Pauley, and N. Bouchard. 1993. Growth and domoic acid production and retention by Nitzschia pungens forma multiseries at low temperatures, p. 631-636. In: T.J. Smayda and Y. Shimizu [eds.] Toxic phytoplankton blooms in the sea. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam.

Smith, J.C., P. Odense, R. Angus, S.S. Bates, C.J. Bird, P. Cormier, A.S.W. de Freitas, C. Léger, D. O'Neil, K. Pauley, and J. Worms. 1990. Variation in domoic acid levels in Nitzschia species: implications for monitoring programs. Bull. Aquacult. Assoc. Can. 90-4: 27-31.

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The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF file; 284 KB)

Smith, M.W., M.A. Maier, D. Suciu, T.D. Peterson, T. Bradstreet, J. Nakayama, and H.M. Simon. 2012. High resolution microarray assay for rapid taxonomic assessment of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) in the field. Harmful Algae 19: 169-180. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Sommer, U. 1994. Are marine diatoms favoured by high Si:N ratios? Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 115: 309-315. (PDF file)

Spackeen, J.L., R.E. Sipler, K. Xu, A.O. Tatters, N.G. Walworth, E.M. Bertrand, J.B. McQuaid, D.A. Hutchins, A.A. Allen, and D.A. Bronk. 2017. Interactive effects of elevated temperature and CO2 on nitrate, urea, and dissolved inorganic carbon uptake by a coastal California, USA, microbial community. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 577: 49-65. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries, P. hasleana] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Spatharis, S., D.B. Danielidis, and G. Tsirtsis. 2007. Recurrent Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha (Bacillariophyceae) and Alexandrium insuetum (Dinophyceae) winter blooms induced by agricultural runoff. Harmful Algae 6: 811-822. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Spatharis, S., E. Smeti, J.M. Linhart, and D.L. Roelke. 2014. Competition between two globally important Pseudo-nitzschia species under N and P limitation. Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland: Annual Science Meeting 3-5 September 2014. (Extended abstract) (PDF file of abstracts)

Spatharis, S., N.P. Dolapsakis, A. Economou-Amilli, G. Tsirtsis, and D.B. Danielidis. 2009. Dynamics of potentially harmful microalgae in a confined Mediterranean Gulf - Assessing the risk of bloom formation. Harmful Algae 8: 736-743. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Stehr, C.M., L. Connell, K.A. Baugh, B.D. Bill, N.G. Adams, and V.L. Trainer. 2002. Morphological, toxicological, and genetic differences among Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) species in inland embayments and outer coastal waters of Washington State, USA. J. Phycol. 38: 55-65. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Stern, R., P. Helaouet , and J. Clarke. 2016. HAB genera identified on archival samples from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey. Harmful Algae News No. 52, p. 2. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissim]] (Link to PDF file of HAN 52)

Stewart, J.E. 2008. Bacterial involvement in determining domoic acid levels apparent in Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries cultures. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 50: 135-144. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Stewart, J.E., L.J. Marks, C.R. Wood, S.M. Risser, and S. Gray. 1997. Symbiotic relations between bacteria and the domoic acid producing diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and the capacity of these bacteria for gluconic acid/gluconolactone formation. Aquat. Microbial. Ecol. 12: 211-221. (Open access PDF file; 1 MB)

Recent Update - Added: October 16, 2017: 

Stone, Emily Elizabeth. 2017. Obligate microbial communities associated with the toxic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia australis genome? Implications for genome assemblies. Master’s Thesis, Clark University, Worcester, MA, 58 p. (Information in ProQuest)

Stonik, I.V. and T.Yu. Orlova. 2013. The species composition and quantitative distribution of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia H. Peragallo, 1990 in Russian waters of the Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk. Russ. J. Mar. Biol. 39: 238-245. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Stonik, I.V., I.I. Kapustina, N.A. Aizdaicher, and V.I. Svetashev. 2016. Sterols and fatty acids isolated from laboratory culture of the toxic marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia pungens. Chem. Nat. Compd. 52: 296-298. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Stonik, I.V., T.Y. Orlova, and O.G. Shevchenko. 2001. Morphology and ecology of the species of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyta) from Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan. Russ. J. Mar. Biol. 27: 362-366. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Stonik, I.V., T.Yu. Orlova, and A.A. Begun. 2008. Potentially toxic diatoms Pseudo-nitzschia fraudulenta and P. calliantha from Russian waters of East/Japan Sea and Sea of Okhotsk. Ocean Sci. J. 43: 25-30. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Stonik, I.V., T.Yu. Orlova, and N. Lundholm. 2011. Diversity of Pseudo-nitzschia H. Peragallo from the western North Pacific. Diatom Res. 26: 121-134. [discusses P. americana, P. cf. caciantha, P. calliantha, P. delicatissima/arenysensis, P. fraudulenta, P. cf. heimii, P. multiseries, P. multistriata, P. obtusa, P. pungens, P. seriata] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Stonik, I.V., T.Yu. Orlova, L.N. Propp, N.L. Demchenko, and A.V. Skriptsova. 2012. An autumn bloom of diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia H. Peragallo, 1900 in Amursky Bay, the Sea of Japan. Russ. J. Mar. Biol. 38: 211-217. [discusses P. calliantha, P. multistriata] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Storms, W.E. 2000. Growth and domoic acid in two species of a toxic diatom. Master's Thesis, University of California, San Diego, California, USA. (PDF file of abstract)

Su, S.N.P. 2010. Ecology and taxonomy of potential amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin producing diatom Pseudo-nitzschia from Malaysian waters. Master's Thesis, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia.

Su, S.N.P. 2011. Ecology and taxonomy of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) diatom Pseudo-nitzschia species (Bacillariophyceae) in Malaysian waters. M.Sc. Dissertation, Faculty of Resource Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia. 134 pp.

Subba Rao D.V, Y. Pan, and K. Mukhida. 1998. Production of domoic acid by Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries Hasle, affected by lithium. Mar. Ecol. 19: 31-36. (Publisher's PDF file)

Subba Rao, D.V. and G. Wohlgeschaffen. 1990. Morphological variants of Nitzschia pungens Grunow f. multiseries Hasle. Bot. Mar. 33: 545-550. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Subba Rao, D.V., A.S.W. de Freitas, M.A. Quilliam, R. Pocklington, and S.S. Bates. 1990. Rates of production of domoic acid, a neurotoxic amino acid in the pennate marine diatom Nitzschia pungens, p. 413-417. In: E. Granéli, B. Sundström, L. Edler, and D.M. Anderson [eds.] Toxic marine phytoplankton. Elsevier Sci. Publ. Co., Inc., New York.

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Subba Rao, D.V., F. Partensky, G. Wohlgeschaffen, and W.K.W. Li. 1991. Flow cytometry and microscopy of gametogenesis in Nitzschia pungens, a toxic, bloom-forming, marine diatom. J. Phycol. 27: 21-26. [Note: see Rosowski et al. (1998; J. Phycol. 34: 126–137) for a rebuttal of this paper.]

Subba Rao, D.V., F. Partensky, G. Wohlgeschaffen, and W.K.W. Li. 1992. Gametogenesis in Nitzschia pungens f. multiseries. J. Phycol. 28: 574-576.

Subba Rao, D.V., M.A. Quilliam, and R. Pocklington. 1988. Domoic acid - a neurotoxic amino acid produced by the marine diatom Nitzschia pungens in culture. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45: 2076-2079.

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Subba Rao, D.V., P.M. Dickie, and P. Vass. 1988. Toxic phytoplankton blooms in the eastern Canadian Atlantic embayments. Comm. Meeting Internat. Cons. Explor. Sea, ICES 1988/L:28 p. 1-16.

Subba Rao, D.V., Y. Pan, and S.J. Smith. 1995. Allelopathy between Rhizosolenia alata (Brightwell) and the toxigenic Pseudonitzschia pungens f. multiseries (Hasle), p. 681-686. In: P. Lassus, G. Arzul, E. Erard, P. Gentien, and C. Marcaillou-Le Baut [eds.] Harmful marine algal blooms. Lavoisier Sci. Publ., Paris.

Sugie, K. and T. Yoshimura. 2013. Effects of pCO2 and iron on the elemental composition and cell geometry of the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima (Bacillariophyceae). J. Phycol. 49: 475-488. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Sun, J., D.A. Hutchins, Y. Feng, E.L. Seubert, D.A. Caron, and F.-X. Fu. 2011. Effects of changing pCO2 and phosphate availability on domoic acid production and physiology of the marine harmful bloom diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. Limnol. Oceanogr. 56: 829-840. (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Sunesen, I., A. Bárcena, and E.A. Sar. 2009. Diatomeas potencialmente nocivas del Golfo San Matías (Argentina). [Potentially harmful diatoms from the San Matías Gulf (Argentina)]. Rev. Biol. Mar. Oceanogr. 44: 67-88. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia australis and P. pungens] (Publisher’s abstract in English and link to free Spanish PDF file)

Suriyanti, S.N.P. and G. Usup. 2015. First report of the toxigenic Nitzschia navis-varingica (Bacillariophyceae) isolated from Tebrau Straits, Johor, Malaysia. Toxicon 108: 257-263. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Sutula, M., R. Kudela, J.D. Hagy, III, L.W. Harding, Jr., D. Senn, J.E. Cloern, S. Bricker, G.M. Berg, and M. Beck. 2017. Novel analyses of long-term data provide a scientific basis for chlorophyll-a thresholds in San Francisco Bay. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 197: 107-118 [includes Pseudo-nitzschia sp.] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Takano, H. 1993. Marine diatom Nitzschia multistriata sp. nov., common at inlets of southern Japan. Diatom, The Japananese J. Diatomol. 8: 39-41. (Link to free PDF file; 1.5 MB)

Takano, H. 1995. Pseudo-nitzschia multisrtiata (Takano) Takano, a new combination for the pennate diatom Nitzschia multistriata Takano. Diatom, The Japanese J. Diatomol. 10: 73-74. (in Japanese, with English abstract) (Link to free PDF file; 384 KB)

Takano, H. and K. Kikuchi. 1985. Anomalous cells of Nitzschia pungens Grunow found in eutrophic marine waters. Diatom, The Japananese J. Diatomol. 1: 18-20. (Link to free PDF file; 809 KB)

Takano, H. and K. Kuroki. 1977. Some diatoms in the Section Pseudonitzschia found in coastal waters of Japan. Bull. Tokai Reg. Fish. Res. Lab. 91: 41-51.

Tammilehto, A., T.G. Nielsen, B. Krock, E.F. Møller, and N. Lundholm. 2015. Induction of domoic acid production in the toxic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia seriata by calanoid copepods. Aquat. Toxicol. 159: 52–61. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Tammilehto, Anna 2015. Arctic diatoms: diversity, plankton interactions and population dynamics. PhD Thesis, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, 151 p. [note: the actual title has the misspelling “poulation”] [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia seriata and domoic acid] (Abstract)

Tan, S.N., H.C. Lim, S.T. Teng, P.T. Lim, and C.P. Leaw. 2015. Pseudo-nitzschia species (Bacillariophyceae) identification and delineation using mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences as compared to LSU rDNA. Fish. Sci. 81: 831-838. (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Tan, S.N., S.T. Teng, H.C. Lim, Y. Kotaki, S.S. Bates, C.P. Leaw, and P.T. Lim. 2016. Diatom Nitzschia navis-varingica (Bacillariophyceae) and its domoic acid production from the mangrove environments of Malaysia. Harmful Algae 60: 139-149. (PDF file in Academia.edu; 3 MB) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Tan, T.H., C.P. Leaw, S.C.Y. Leong, L.P. Lim, S.M. Chew, S.T. Teng, and P.T. Lim. 2016. Marine micro-phytoplankton of Singapore, with a review of harmful microalgae in the region. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. No. 34: 78-96. [includes Pseudo-nitzschia brasiliana, P. cuspidata, P. micropora, P. multistriata, P. pungens, P. seriata] (PDF file; 3.9 MB)

Tang, Y.Z., F. Koch, and C.J. Gobler. 2010. Most harmful algal bloom species are vitamin B1 and B12 auxotrophs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107: 20756-20761. [includes the vitamin requirements of P. pungens and P. multiseries] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Tang, Y.Z., Y. Kang, D. Berry, and C.J. Gobler. 2015. The ability of the red macroalga, Porphyra purpurea (Rhodophyceae) to inhibit the proliferation of seven common harmful microalgae. J. Appl. Phycol. 27: 531-544. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Tas, S. 2017. Planktonic diatom composition and environmental conditions in the Golden Horn Estuary (Sea of Marmara, Turkey). Fundam. Appl. Limnol. 189: 153-166. [includes Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha and P. pungens] (PDF file in ResearchGate; 2.3 KB)

Tas, S. and N. Lundholm. 2017. Temporal and spatial variability of the potentially toxic Pseudo-nitzschia spp. in a eutrophic estuary (Sea of Marmara). J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 49: 951-958. [discusses P. calliantha, P. pungens] (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Tas, S., F. Dursun, A. Aksu, and N. Balkis. 2016. Presence of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia and particulate domoic acid in the Golden Horn Estuary (Sea of Marmara, Turkey). Diatom Res. 31: 339-349. (PDF file from ResearchGate; 1.2 MB) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Taş, S., H.A. Ergül, and N. Balkis. 2016. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) and mucilage formations in the Sea of Marmara, p. 768-786. In: E. Özsoy, M.N. Çağatay, N. Balkıs, N. Balkıs, and B. Öztürk [eds.] The Sea of Marmara; Marine biodiversity, fisheries, conservation and governance. Turkish Marine Research Foundation (TUDAV), Publication No: 42, Istanbul, Turkey. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, P. delicatissima, P. seriata, P. calliantha] (PDF file of entire book in ResearchGate; 25.7 MB)

Tas, S., I. Noyan Yilmaz, and E. Okus. 2009. Phytoplankton as an indicator of improving water quality in the Golden Horn Estuary. Estuar Coasts 32: 1205-1224. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima and P. pungens] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Tatters, A.O., F.-X. Fu, and D.A. Hutchins. 2012. High CO2 and silicate limitation synergistically increase the toxicity of Pseudo-nitzschia fraudulenta. PLoS ONE 7: e32116. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032116 (Open Access PDF file; 576 KB) (Publisher's abstract)

Teng, S.-T., H.-C. Lim, P.-T. Lim, and C.-P. Leaw. 2011. Development of Pseudo-nitzschia species-specific oligonucleotide primers for ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. In: Proceedings of the 9th Malaysia Genetics Congress (MGC9). Appreciating the Richness of Nature Through Genetics. Genetics Society of Malaysia. Kuching, 28-30 September 2011. No. O32 (Electronic copy) (PDF file; 73 KB)

Teng, S.-T., P.-T. Lim, H.-C. Lim, and C.-P. Leaw. 2014. Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) in Malaysia: a record of taxa from field investigations, p. 145-148. In: Kim, H.G., B. Reguera, G.M. Hallegraeff, C.K. Lee, M.S. Han, and J.K. Choi. [eds.] Harmful Algae 2012, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Harmful Algae. International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae, Maple Design, Busan, Korea. [mentions P. amaricana, P. brasiliana, P. caciantha, P. calliantha, P. circumpora, P. decipiens, P. inflatula, P. linea, P. lineola, P. multistriata, P. pseudodelicatissima, P. pungens, P. subfraudulenta, P. turgidula] (PDF file of accepted paper; 360 KB) (PDF of Proceedings; 6.4 MB)

Teng, S.T., C.P. Leaw, H.C. Lim, and P.T. Lim. 2013. The genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) in Malaysia, including new records and a key to species inferred from morphology-based phylogeny. Bot. Mar. 56: 375–398. [discusses P. brasiliana, P. caciantha, P. calliantha, P. cuspidata, P. delicatissima, P. multistriata, P. pseudodelicatissima, P. pungens, P. turgidula, P. mannii, P. circumpora, P. sinica, P. inflatula, P. delicatissima/P. arenysensis, P. decipiens, P. dolorosa, P. cf. lineola, P. americana, P. linea, P. micropora, P. subfraudulenta] (PDF file) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Teng, S.T., D.A. Dmitriev, S.S. Bates, H.C. Lim, P.T. Lim, and C.P. Leaw. 2014. Introducing a web-based interactive identification key to species of Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae). Harmful Algae News No. 49, p. 14. (E-version of the entire issue) (Link to the Interactive Key)

Teng, S.T., H.C. Lim, P.T. Lim, M. Rivera-Vilarelle, S. Quijano-Scheggia, Y. Takata, M.A. Quilliam, M. Wolf, S.S. Bates, and C.P. Leaw. 2015. A non-toxigenic but morphologically and phylogenetically distinct new species of Pseudo-nitzschia, Pseudo-nitzschia sabit sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae). J. Phycol. 51: 706–725. [indicates toxigenic P. sp. GOM in Fernandes et al. (2014) is P. plurisecta] (PDF file from ResearchGate) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Teng, S.T., H.C. Lim, P.T. Lim, V.H. Dao, S.S. Bates, and C.P. Leaw. 2014. Pseudo-nitzschia kodamae sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae), a toxigenic species from the Strait of Malacca, Malaysia. Harmful Algae 34: 17-28. (PDF file) (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Teng, S.T., S.N. Tan, H.C. Lim, V.H. Dao, S.S. Bates, and C.P. Leaw. 2016. High diversity of Pseudo-nitzschia along the northern coast of Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo), with descriptions of P. bipertita sp. nov. and P. limii (Bacillariophyceae). J. Phycol. 52: 973-989. [includes P. abrensis, P. batesiana, P. kodamae, P. fukuyoi, P. lundholmiae] (PDF file from ResearchGate; 2 MB) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Tenorio García Blásquez, Liz Cecil. 2014. Veneno amnésico en especies de Pseudo-nitzschia en la costa central del Perú y su riesgo para la acuicultura de pectínidos. Master’s Thesis. Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Peru, 77 p. (in Spanish) [discusses P. pungens, P. subpacifica] (PDF file; 3.0 MB)

Tenorio, C., E. Uribe, P. Gil-Kodaka, J. Blanco, and G. Álvarez. 2016. Morphological and toxicological studies of Pseudo-nitzschia species from the central coast of Peru. Diatom Res. 31: 331-338. [discusses P. pungens, P. subpacifica; no domoic acid detected] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Terenko, L. and G. Terenko. 2012. Dominant Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyta) species in the Black Sea (Ukraine). Bot. Lithuanica 18: 27-34. [mentions P. delicatissima, P. seriata, P. pseudodelicatissima, P. pungens, P. calliantha, P. inflatula] (Publisher's abstract and link to open access PDF file)

Terseleer Lillo, Nathan 2014. Bottom-up and top-down controls of diatoms in the Belgian coastal zone (southern North Sea): combining plankton functional type modelling and trait-based approaches. PhD thesis, Université libre de Bruxelles. [Chapter on “Factors controlling the production of domoic acid by Pseudo-nitzschia”] (PDF file of the thesis abstract and table of contents)

Terseleer, N., N. Gypens, and C. Lancelot. 2013. Factors controlling the production of domoic acid by Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae): a model study. Harmful Algae 24: 45–53. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Tesson, S.V.M., C. Legrand, C. van Oosterhout, M. Montresor, W.H.C.F. Kooistra, and G. Procaccini. 2013. Mendelian inheritance pattern and high mutation rates of microsatellite alleles in the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata. Protist 164: 89-100. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Tesson, S.V.M., M. Borra, W.H.C.F. Kooistra, and G. Procaccini. 2011. Microsatellite primers in the planktonic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata (Bacillariophyceae). Amer. J. Bot. 98: e33-e35. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Tesson, S.V.M., M. Montresor, G. Procaccini, and W.H.C.F. Kooistra. 2014. Temporal changes in population structure of a marine planktonic diatom. PLoS ONE 9: e114984. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata] (Open Access PDF file) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Tesson, Sylvie V.M. 2010. Population genetic structure of a planktonic diatom in the Gulf of Naples: Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata. PhD Thesis (October 2010). The Open University of London, 285 p. (Abstract)

Thessen, A.E. 2007. Taxonomy and ecophysiology of Pseudo-nitzschia in the Chesapeake Bay. PhD thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA, 231 p. (Abstract and link to PDF file) (PDF; 2.1 MB)

Thessen, A.E. and D.K. Stoecker. 2008. Distribution, abundance and domoic acid analysis of the toxic diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia from the Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries Coasts 31: 664-672. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Thessen, A.E., H.A. Bowers, D.K. Stoecker. 2009. Intra- and interspecies differences in growth and toxicity of Pseudo-nitzschia while using different nitrogen sources. Harmful Algae 8: 792-810. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Thessen, A.E., Q. Dortch, M.L. Parsons, and W. Morrison. 2005. Effect of salinity on Pseudo-nitzschia species (Bacillariophyceae) growth and distribution. J. Phycol. 41: 21-29. (PDF file)

Thoha, H., Y. Kotaki, L. Panggabean, N. Lundholm, H. Ogawa, P.T. Lim, Y. Takata, M. Kodama, and Y. Fukuyo. 2012. Screening of diatoms that produce ASP toxins in Southernmost Asian waters. Coastal Mar. Sci. 35: 34-38. [discusses Nitzschia Navis-varingica and Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Alternate link to PDF file) (Link to UP Repository abstract and PDF file)

Thompson, S. 2000. The role of bacteria in mediating the sexual reproduction of the domoic-acid-producing diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (Hasle) Hasle. Honour's Thesis, Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB, Canada, 49 p.

Thorel, M., J. Fauchot, J. Morelle, V. Raimbault, B. Le Roy, C. Miossec, V. Kientz-Bouchart, and P. Claquin. 2014. Interactive effects of irradiance and temperature on growth and domoic acid production of the toxic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia australis (Bacillariophyceae). Harmful Algae 39: 232-241. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Thorel, M., P. Claquin, M. Schapira, R. Le Gendre, P. Riou, D. Goux, B. Le Roy, V. Raimbault, A.-F. Deton-Cabanillas, and P. Bazin. 2017. Nutrient ratios influence variability in Pseudo-nitzschia species diversity and particulate domoic acid production in the Bay of Seine (France). Harmful Algae 68: 192–205. [discusses P. australis, P. pungens, P. fraudulenta] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Tibiriçá, C.E.J.A., L.F. Fernandes, and L.L. Mafra, Jr. 2015. Seasonal and spatial patterns of toxigenic species of Dinophysis and Pseudo-nitzschia in a subtropical Brazilian estuary. Braz. J. Oceanogr. 63:17-32. (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Timmerman, A.H.V., M.A. McManus, O.M. Cheriton, R.K. Cowen, A.T. Greer, R.M. Kudela, K. Ruttenberg, and J. Sevadjian. 2014. Hidden thin layers of toxic diatoms in a coastal bay. Deep-Sea Res. II 101: 129–140. [Pseudo-nitzschia in thin layers] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Timmerman, Amanda H.V. 2012. Hidden thin layers of toxic diatoms in a coastal bay. Master of Science in Oceanography. University of Hawaii at Mānoa. [Pseudo-nitzschia in thin layers] (PDF of abstract)

Torres Palenzuela, J.M., L. González Vilas, and Á. Mosquera Jiménez. 2005. Correlation between MERIS and in-situ data for study of Pseudo-nitzschia spp toxic blooms in Galician coastal areas, p. 497-507. In: M. Oluić [ed.] New Strategies for European Remote Sensing. Millpress, Rotterdam. (Table of contents of the book)

Torres Palenzuela, J.M., L. Vilas-González, and Á. Mosqura-Giménez. 2005. Detection of Pseudo-nitzschia spp toxic blooms using MERIS images on the Galician coast. European Space Agency Special Publication, Issue 572, p. 1915-1919. (Abstract and link to free PDF file)

Tortell, P.D., C.D. Payne, Y. Li, S. Trimborn, B. Rost, W.O. Smith, C. Riesselman, R.B. Dunbar, P. Sedwick, and G.R. DiTullio. 2008. CO2 sensitivity of Southern Ocean phytoplankton. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35: L04605, doi:10.1029/2007GL032583. [includes Pseudo-nitzschia subcurvata] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Trainer, V.L. and B.H. Hickey. 2003. The challenges of forecasting and managing toxigenic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms on the US west coast, p. 55-19. In: N.J. Valette-Silver and D. Scavia [eds.] Ecological forecasting: new tools for coastal and marine ecosystem management. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 1. (PDF file of 116 page proceedings; 3.08 MB)

Trainer, V.L., B.M Hickey, and R.A. Horner. 2002. Biological and physical dynamics of domoic acid production off the Washington coast. Limnol. Oceanogr. 47: 1438-1446. (PDF file outside DFO's website)

Trainer, V.L., B.M. Hickey, E.J. Lessard, W.P. Cochlan, C.G. Trick, M.L. Wells, A. MacFadyen, and S.K. Moore. 2009. Variability of Pseudo-nitzschia and domoic acid in the Juan de Fuca eddy region and its adjacent shelves. Limnol. Oceanogr. 54: 289-308. (Publisher's abstract) (Table of contents, with link to PDF file)

Trainer, V.L., J.C. Wekell, R.A. Horner, C.L. Hatfield, and J.E. Stein. 1998. Domoic acid production by Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, p. 337-340. In: B. Reguera, J. Blanco, M.L. Fernández, and T. Wyatt [eds.] Harmful algae. Xunta de Galicia and the IOC of UNESCO, Paris. (Website to download the Proceedings)

Trainer, V.L., M.L. Wells, W.P. Cochlan, C.G. Trick, B.D. Bill, K.A. Baugh, B.F. Beall, J. Herndon, and N. Lundholm. 2009. An ecological study of a massive bloom of toxigenic Pseudo-nitzschia cuspidata off the Washington State coast. Limnol. Oceanogr. 54: 1461-1474. (Publisher's table of contents and link to paper plus PDF file)

Trainer, V.L., N.G. Adams, and J.C. Wekell. 2001. Domoic acid producing Pseudo-nitzschia species off the U.S. west coast associated with toxification events, p. 46-49. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, S.I. Blackburn, C.J. Bolch, and R.J. Lewis [eds.] Harmful Algal Blooms 2000. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris.

Archived File

The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF file; 456 KB)

Trainer, V.L., N.G. Adams, B.D. Bill, B.F. Anulacion, and J.C. Wekell. 1998. Concentration and dispersal of a Pseudo-nitzschia bloom in Penn Cove, Washington, USA. Natural Toxins 6: 113-126. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Trefault, N., B. Krock, N. Delherbe, A. Cembella and M. Vásquez. 2011. Latitudinal transects in the southeastern Pacific Ocean reveal a diverse but patchy distribution of phycotoxins. Toxicon 58: 389-397. [discusses domoic acid in Chilean waters] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Trick, C.G., B.D. Bill, W.P. Cochlan, M.L. Wells, V.L. Trainer, and L.D. Pickell. 2010. Iron enrichment stimulates toxic diatom production in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll areas. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107: 5887-5892. [discusses oceanic Pseudo-nitzschia turgidula and P. cf. granii] (Open access PDF file; 754 KB) (Publisher's abstract)

Trimborn, S., N. Lundholm, S. Thoms, K.-U. Richter, B. Krock, P.J. Hansen, and B. Rost. 2008. Inorganic carbon acquisition in potentially toxic and non-toxic diatoms: the effect of pH-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry. Physiol. Plant. 133: 92-105. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries, Nitzschia navis-varingica and domoic acid production] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Trimborn, S., S. Thoms, K. Petrou, S.A. Kranz, and B. Rost. 2014. Photophysiological responses of Southern Ocean phytoplankton to changes in CO2 concentrations: short-term versus acclimation effects. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 451: 44-54. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia subcurvata in culture] (Publisher’s abstract and link to Open Access PDF file)

Trombetta, M. 2004-05. Le diatomee potenzialmente tossiche in Adriatrico. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp. in the Adriatic] (in Italian). Thesis, Università degli Studi di Udine, Italy, 92 p. (Link to abstract) (PDF version of Table of Contents)

Turki, S., A. Dhib, M. Fertouna-Bellakhal, V. Frossard, N. Balti, R. Kharrat, and L. Aleya. 2014. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) associated with phycotoxins in shellfish: What can be learned from five years of monitoring in Bizerte Lagoon (Southern Mediterranean Sea)? Ecol. Engin. 67: 39-47. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and domoic acid in mussels and oysters] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Recent Update - Added: October 16, 2017: 

van Tol, H.M., S.A. Amin, and E.V. Armbrust. 2017. Ubiquitous marine bacterium inhibits diatom cell division. ISME J. 11: 31-42. [includes Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries, P. fraudulenta] (PDF file in ResearchGate; 1.9 MB) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Vargas-Montero, M. and E. Freer. 2004. Algal blooms of the toxigenic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) in the Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52 Suppl. 1: 127-132. (In Spanish, with English abstract) Spanish title: Proliferaciones algales de la diatomea toxigénica Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) en el Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica. (Publisher's abstract in English) (Pubmed)

Velo-Suárez, L., S. González-Gil, P. Gentien, M. Lunven, C. Bechemin, L. Fernand, R. Raine, and B. Reguera. 2008. Thin layers of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and the fate of Dinophysis acuminata during an upwelling-downwelling cycle in a Galician Ría. Limnol. Oceanogr. 53: 1816-1834. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Villac, M.C. 1996. Synecology of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia H. Peragallo from Monterey Bay, California, U.S.A. Ph.D. Thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. 258 p.

Villac, M.C. and D.R. Tenenbaum. 2001. The coastal Pseudo-nitzschia from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, p. 34-37. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, S.I. Blackburn, C.J. Bolch, and R.J. Lewis [eds.] Harmful Algal Blooms 2000. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris.

Archived File

The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF file; 415 KB)

Villac, M.C. and G.A. Fryxell. 1998. Pseudo-nitzschia pungens var. cingulata var. nov. (Bacillariophyceae) based on field and culture observations. Phycologia 37: 269-274. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Villac, M.C., D.L. Roelke, F.P. Chavez, L.A. Cifuentes, and G.A. Fryxell. 1993. Pseudonitzschia australis and related species from the west coast of the U.S.A.: occurrence and domoic acid production. J. Shellfish Res. 12: 457-465. [also discusses P. americana, P. delicatissima, P. multiseries, P. pungens, P. pseudodelicatissima] (PDF file)

Villac, M.C., D.L. Roelke, T.A. Villareal, and G.A. Fryxell. 1993. Comparison of two domoic acid-producing diatoms - a review. Hydrobiol. 269: 213-224. (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Villac, M.C., M.G. Matos, V.S. Santos, Rodrigues, and S.C. Viana. 2004. Composition and distribution of Pseudo-nitzschia from Guanabara Bay, Brazil: the role of salinity, based on field and culture observations, p. 56-58. In: K.A. Steidinger, J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo [eds.] Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris. (PDF file; 176 KB) (Website for all PDF files of the Proceedings)

Villac, M.C., S. Melo, M. Menezes, and D. Rivera. 2005. Pseudo-nitzschia brasiliana (Bacillariophyceae), an opportunistic diatom on the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Atlântica, Río Grande. 27: 139-145.

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Villareal, T.A., D.L. Roelke, and G.A. Fryxell. 1994. Occurrence of the toxic diatom Nitzschia pungens f. multiseries in Massachusetts Bay, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Mar. Environ. Res. 37: 417-423. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Vitale, Laura. 2015. Molecular insights into the mating system of the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata using genetic and genomic approaches. PhD Thesis, Open University, and Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohm, Napoli, 286 p. (Abstract and link to PDF file)

Vrieling, E.G., R.P.T. Koeman, C.A. Scholin, P. Scheerman, L. Peperzak, M.Veenhuis, and W.W.C. Gieskes. 1996. Identification of a domoic acid-producing Pseudo-nitzschia species (Bacillariophyceae) in the Dutch Wadden Sea with electron microscopy and molecular probes. European J. Phycol. 31: 333-340. (Publisher's abstract and link to free PDF file)

Vrieling, E.G., R.P.T. Koeman, L. Peperzak, M. Veenhuis, P. Scheerman, and W.W.C. Gieskes. 1996. Pseudo-nitzschia pungens forma multiseries and other Pseudo-nitzschia species in the Dutch Wadden Sea, p. 139-142. In: T. Yasumoto, Y. Oshima, and Y. Fukuyo [eds.] Harmful and toxic algal blooms, Intergov. Oceanogr. Comm., UNESCO, Paris.

Walz, P.M., D.L. Garrison, W.M. Graham, M.A. Cattey, R.S. Tjeerdema, and M.W. Silver. 1994. Domoic acid-producing diatom blooms in the Monterey Bay, California: 1991-1993. Natural Toxins 2: 271-279.

Wang, C., X. Li, Z. Lai, S. Yao, and C. Huang. 2008. The study on seasonal trait of Nitzschia population in Zhelin Bay of eastern Guangdong. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 76: 319-326. [discusses P. delicatissima and P. pungens] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Wang, P., J. Liang, X. Lin, C. Chen, Y. Huang, Y. Gao, and Y. Gao. 2012. Morphology, phylogeny and ITS-2 secondary structure of Pseudo-nitzschia brasiliana (Bacillariophyceae), including Chinese strains. Phycologia 51: 1-10. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Wang, R. and Y. Shimizu. 1990. Bacillariolides I and II, a new type of cyclopentane eicosanoids from the diatom Nitzschia pungens. J. Chem. Soc. 1990 (5): 413- .

Wang, R., L. Maranda, P.E. Hargraves, and Y. Shimizu. 1993. Chemical variation of Nitzschia pungens as demonstrated by the co-occurrence of domoic acid and bacillariolides, p. 637-642. In: T.J. Smayda and Y. Shimizu [eds.] Toxic phytoplankton blooms in the sea. Elsevier Sci. Publ. B.V., Amsterdam. (abstract)

Watson, S.J. 1994. Investigations of the relationship between marine bacteria and Pseudo-nitzschia australis (Bacillariophyceae). Master's Thesis, University of Oregon, Graduate School, Eugene, OR, December 1994, 63 p. (PDF file; 3.1 MB)

Wekell, J.C., R.A. Horner, J.R. Postel, C.L. Hatfield, A.M. Ross, and V.L. Trainer. 1998. In situ domoic acid levels in Pseudo-nitzschia cells off the Washington state coast in July 1996, p. 235-126. In: B. Reguera, J. Blanco, M.L. Fernández, and T. Wyatt [eds.] Harmful algae. Xunta de Galicia and the IOC of UNESCO, Paris. (Website to download the Proceedings)

Wells, M.L., C.G. Trick, W.P. Cochlan, M.P. Hughes, and V.L. Trainer. 2005. Domoic acid: the synergy of iron, copper, and the toxicity of diatoms. Limnol. Oceanogr. 50: 1908-1917. (PDF file outside DFO's website)

Whittaker, K.A. and T.A. Rynearson. 2017. Evidence for environmental and ecological selection in a microbe with no geographic limits to gene flow. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114: 2651–2656. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia pungens in relation to Thalassiosira rotula] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Whyte, J.N.C., N.G. Ginther, and L.D. Townsend. 1995. Formation of domoic acid and fatty acids in Pseudonitzschia pungens f. multiseries with scale of culture. J. Appl. Phycol. 7: 199-205. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Widiarti, R., Y. Mulyani, N. Kurnia, and F. Razi. 2013. Phytoplankton species composition in seawater and tissue of green mussels (Perna viridis), at Kali Baru-Cilincing, North Jakarta. Mar. Res. Indonesia 38: 67-70. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher’s abstract and link to free PDF file)

Windust, A.J. 1998. The physiological ecology of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxin production by the dinoflagellate Ecuviaella lima (Ehr.) Bütschli. PhD Thesis, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. 214 p. [Chapter 5 discusses the growth of P. multiseries and P. pungens in a turbidostat culture system: "Simplex optimization of the growth rate of two species of Pseudo-nitzschia, with respect to irradiance and temperature, using a computer-controlled turbidostat culture system"]

Archived File

The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF file of thesis, but without the figs; 251 KB)

Wingert, Charles J. 2017. The effects of ocean acidification on growth, photosynthesis, and domoic acid production by the toxigenic diatom, Pseudo-nitzschia australis. M.S. Thesis. San Francisco State University, 134 p. (Abstract of poster version) (Poster version)

Woods, April. 2016. Domoic acid production in Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) as a general response to unbalanced growth: the role of photo-oxidative stress. Master’s Thesis. California State University, Monterey Bay. Capstones and Theses, Paper 575, 86 p. (PDF file; 14.3 MB)

Worms, J., S.S. Bates, J.C. Smith, P. Cormier, C. Léger, and K. Pauley. 1990. Domoic acid, a neurotoxin produced by the pennate diatom Nitzschia pungens forma multiseries: an overview of some recent ecological and physiological observations, p. 35-42. In: J.M. Fremy [ed.] Proceedings of the international symposium on marine biotoxins. CNEVA Pub. Series, Maisons-Alfort, Paris, France.

Wu, Q., W.H. Nelson, P. Hargraves, Zhang, J., Brown, C.W., and Seelenbinder, J.A. 1998. Differentiation of algae clones on the basis of resonance Raman spectra excited by visible light. Anal. Chem. 70: 1782-1787. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Xing, X., J. Yang, Y. Kang, Y. Gao, J. Liang, and X. Lin. 2007. Morphological study and toxic analysis for two Pseudo-nitzschia species isolated from Daya Bay. J. Oceanogr. Taiwan Strait 26: 576-582. (in Chinese) (Abstract and link to PDF file)

Xu, B., C.-S. Luo, J.-R. Liang, D.-D. Chen, W.-H. Zhuo, Y.-H. Gao, C.-P. Chen, and S.-S. Song. 2014. Cellular metabolic responses of the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries associated with cell wall formation. Mar. Genomics 16: 29-38. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Xu, G.-s. and Y. Li. 2015. Two new records of diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia from Chinese waters and analysis of their domoic acid production. J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 23: 614-624. [discusses P. galaxiae and P. micropora] [in Chinese] (PDF file; 2.6 MB)

Xu, N., Y.Z. Tang, J. Qin, S. Duan, and C.J. Gobler. 2015. Ability of the marine diatoms Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. pungens to inhibit the growth of co-occurring phytoplankton via allelopathy. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 74: 29-41. (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Yamahara, K.M., E. Demir-Hilton, C.M. Preston, R. Marin III, D. Pargett, B. Roman, S. Jensen, J.M. Birch, A.B. Boehm, and C.A. Scholin. 2015. Simultaneous monitoring of fecal indicators and harmful algae using an in-situ autonomous sensor. Let. Appl. Microbiol. 61: 130-138. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Yang, Junxia. 2007. Growth characteristics and toxin determination of four species of Pseudo-nitzschia from Southeast China Sea. Master's thesis, Xiamen University, China. Superviors: Professor Yaohui Gao, and Dr. Junrong Liang. 100 pp. (in Chinese) (Link to university website)

Yang, Z.B. 2000. Pseudo-nitzschia species in Hong Kong coastal waters. In: Z.B. Yang. Harmful algal blooms in selected Hong Kong coastal waters. PhD Thesis, The University of Hong Kong. p. 139-162.

Yang, Z.B. and I.J. Hodgkiss. 2002. Potentially harmful Pseudo-nitzschia species in Hong Kong coastal waters, p. 123-128. In: Ho, K.C., H.Y. Lam, and T.S. Yu [eds.] Harmful algal blooms in the South China Sea. Association on Harmful Algal Blooms in the South China Sea.

Archived File

The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF file; 1.8 MB)

Yap-Dejeto, L.G., T. Omura, G.F. Cinco, M.M. Cobacha, and Y. Fukuyo. 2013. Species account of marine diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia in San Pedro Bay, Philippines. Philippine J. Sci. 142: 27-37. [discusses P. brasiliana, P. caciantha, P. micropora, P. pseudodelicatissima, P. pungens] (Direct link to PDF file) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Yap-Dejeto, L.G., T. Omura, Y. Nagahama, Y. Nagahama, and Y. Fukuyo. 2010. Observations of eleven Pseudo-nitzschia species in Tokyo Bay, Japan. La Mer (La Société Franco-Japonaise d'Océanographie, Tokyo) 48: 1-16. [P. americana, P. brasiliana, P. caciantha, P. calliantha and P. galaxiae reported for the first time; also found P. delicatissima, P. fraudulenta, P. multistriata, P. multiseries, P. pseudodelicatissima, P. pungens]

Archived File

The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF file; 3.1 MB)

Yap-Dejeto, Leni G. 2010. Development of practical quantification protocols of the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. for ecological studies. PhD Thesis, March 2010. The University of Tokyo. 176 pp.

Yu, Z. and D.V. Subba Rao. 1998. Impact of germanium on the growth of Pseudonitzschia pungens f. multiseries and the production of algal toxin. Chinese Sci. Bull. 43: 2091-2095. (PDF file; 474 KB)

Yu, Z. and D.V. Subba Rao. 1998. Impact of halloysite on growth of Pseudonitzschia pungens f. multiseries and production of algal toxin. Oceanol. Limnol. Sin. 29: 47-52. (in Chinese, with English abstract) (Abstract and link to PDF file)

Yuan, X.-L., M. Cao, and G.-Q. Bi. 2016. The complete mitochondrial genome of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (Baciuariophyta). Mitochondrial DNA 27: 2777-2778. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Zabaglo, K., E. Chrapusta, B. Bober, A. Kaminski, M. Adamski, and J. Bialczyk. 2016. Environmental roles and biological activity of domoic acid: a review. Algal Res. 13: 94-101. (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Zamudio-Resendiz, E., D. González-Rivas, and M.E. Meave del Castillo. 2014. Evaluation of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. in a tropical bay of the Mexican Pacific, p. 33-36. In: Kim, H.G., B. Reguera, G.M. Hallegraeff, C.K. Lee, M.S. Han, and J.K. Choi. [eds.] Harmful Algae 2012, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Harmful Algae. International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae. Maple Design, Busan, Korea. (PDF file of accepted paper; 400 KB) (PDF of Proceedings; 6.4 MB)

Zapata, M., F. Rodríguez, S. Fraga, L. Barra, and M.V. Ruggiero. 2011. Chlorophyll c pigment patterns in 18 species (51 strains) of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae). J. Phycol. 47: 1274-1280. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Zhang, C. and J. Zou. 1994. Preliminary study on the subspecific taxonomy of Nitzschia pungens Grunow in Chinese coastal waters. Hai yan yu chao. Oceanologia et Limnologia 25: 219- . (in Chinese)

Zhen, Y., T. Mi, and Z. Yu. 2009. Detection of several harmful algal species by sandwich hybridization integrated with a nuclease protection assay. Harmful Algae 8: 651-657. [includes Pseudo-nitzschia pungens] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Zheng, N. and Y. Shimizu. 1997. The isolation and structure of bacillariolide III, an extracellular metabolite of the diatom, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. Chem. Commun. 1997 (4): 399-400. (PDF file outside of DFO's website)

Zhu, Z., K. Xu, F. Fu, J.L. Spackeen, D.A. Bronk, and D.A. Hutchins. 2016. A comparative study of iron and temperature interactive effects on diatoms and Phaeocystis antarctica from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 550: 39-51. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia subcurvata] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Zhu, Z., P. Qu, F. Fu, N. Tennenbaum, A.O. Tatters, and D.A. Hutchins. 2017. Understanding the blob bloom: warming increases toxicity and abundance of the harmful bloom diatom Pseudo-nitzschia in California coastal waters. Harmful Algae 67: 36-43. [discusses P. australis, P. delicatissima] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Zhu, Z., P. Qu, J. Gale, F. Fu, and D.A. Hutchins. 2017. Individual and interactive effects of warming and CO2 on Pseudo-nitzschia subcurvata and Phaeocystis antarctica, two dominant phytoplankton from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Biogeosciences doi:10.5194/bg-2017-18 (under review, but PDF file available) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Zingone, A., R. Siano, D. D’Alelio, and D. Sarno. 2006. Potentially toxic and harmful microalgae from coastal waters of the Campania region (Tyrrhenian Sea, Mediterranean Sea). Harmful Algae 5: 321-337. [Includes Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Zou, J.Z., M.J. Zhou, and C. Zhang. 1993. Ecological features of toxic Nitzschia pungens Grunow in Chinese coastal waters, p. 651-657. In: T.J. Smayda and Y. Shimizu [eds.] Toxic phytoplankton blooms in the sea. Elsevier Sci. Publ. B.V., Amsterdam.

Recent Update - Added: October 16, 2017: 

Zúñiga, D., C. Santos, M. Froján, E. Salgueiro, M.M. Rufino, F. De la Granda, F.G. Figueiras, C.G. Castro, and F. Abrantes. 2017. Diatoms as a paleoproductivity proxy in the NW Iberian coastal upwelling system (NE Atlantic). Biogeosciences 14: 1165-1179. [includes Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, P. cf. delicatissima, P. cf. seriata] (Correction) (PDF file; 1.9 MB) (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)