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General and Review References

Addison, R.F. and J.E. Stewart. 1989. Domoic acid and the eastern Canadian molluscan shellfish industry. Aquaculture 77: 263-269. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Ajani, P., D.T. Harwood, and S.A. Murray. 2017. Recent trends in marine phycotoxins from Australian coastal waters. Mar. Drugs 15: 33. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia species and domoic acid] (Publisher’s abstract and link to Open Access PDF file)

Ajani, P.A. and S. Murray. 2016. A review of toxic algal species towards improving management of toxic blooms in New South Wales. Technical Report for Hornsby Shire Council, 71 p. [includes descriptions of Pseudo-nitzschia species] (PDF version from ResearchGate; 204 MB)

Amzil, Z. 2006. Guide d’information. Phycotoxines amnésiantes (ASP). Ifremer. 5 p. (PFD file)

Angus, Thomas H. 2015. Examining the toxicity, exposure, and regulatory approach to potential human health risks of the algal toxin domoic acid. PhD Thesis, University of Massachusetts Boston, 360 p. (Link to abstract and Open Access PDF file)

Annon. 1992. Domoic acid intoxication. Canadian Commun. Dis. Rep. 18: 118-120.

ARL Shellfish Toxin Team. 1988. Solving the toxic mussel problem. Can. Chem. News 10: 15-17.

Aune, T. 2001. Risk assessment of toxins associated with DSP, PSP and ASP in seafood, p. 515-526. In: W.J. De Koe, R.A. Samson, H.P. Van Egmond, J. Gilbert, and M. Sabino [eds.] Mycotoxins and phycotoxins in perspective at the turn of the millennium. Wageningen, The Netherlands. (Related chapter in Google Books)

Backer, L.C. and M. Miller. 2016. Sentinel animals in a one health approach to harmful cyanobacterial and algal blooms. Vet. Sci. 3: 8. [discusses domoic acid and Pseudo-nitzschia species] (Open Access PDF file; 243 KB)

Balmer-Hanchey, E.L., L.A. Jaykus, D.P. Green, and P. McClellan-Green. 2003. Marine biotoxins of algal origin and seafood safety. J. Aquat. Food Prod. Technol. 12: 29-54. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Barceloux, D.G. 2008. Amnesic shellfish poisoning and domoic acid. p 212-217. Medical toxicology of natural substances: foods, fungi, medicinal herbs, plants, and venomous animals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (Excerpt in Google Books) (Information)

Bargu, S., E. Smith, and K. Ozhan. 2011. Toxic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia and its primary consumers (vectors), p. 493-512. In: J. Seckbach and P. Kociolek [eds.] The diatom world. Cellular origin, life in extreme habitats and astrobiology, 19. Koeltz Scientific Books, Koenigstein, Germany. (Link to book information)

Bargu, S., T. Goldstein, K. Roberts, C. Li, and F. Gulland. 2012. Pseudo-nitzschia blooms, domoic acid, and related California sea lion strandings in Monterey Bay, California. Mar. Mammal Sci. 28: 237-253. (PDF file of "in press" version; 397 KB) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Bates, S.S. 1997. Toxic phytoplankton on the Canadian east coast: implications for aquaculture. Bull. Aquacult. Assoc. Canada 97-3: 9-18.

Archived File

The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF file; 743 KB)

Bates, S.S. 1998. Ecophysiology and metabolism of ASP toxin production, p. 405-426. In: D.M. Anderson, A.D. Cembella, and G.M. Hallegraeff [eds.] Physiological ecology of harmful algal blooms. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.

Archived File

The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF file; 196 KB)

Bates, S.S. 2000. Domoic-acid-producing diatoms: another genus added! J. Phycol. 36: 978-983. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Bates, S.S. 2004. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: domoic acid production by Pseudo-nitzschia diatoms. Aqua Info Aquaculture Notes 16, 4 p. (PDF file outside DFO's website)

Bates, S.S. 2009. Morphometric data of selected Pseudo-nitzschia species. Unpublished spreadsheet, updated June 3, 2009. (contact Stephen Bates at da-ref.glf@dfo-mpo.gc.ca for a copy of the Excel file) (note: this table does not reflect all of the new species recently identified, especially in the pseudodelicatissima / cuspidata complex)

Archived File

The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF file; 40 KB)

Bates, S.S. and J. Worms [eds.]. 1989. Proceedings of the first Canadian workshop on harmful marine algae, Gulf Fisheries Centre, Moncton, New Brunswick, September 27 - 28, 1989. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 1712: 60 p.[contains information about domoic acid and Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (PDF file; 2.12 MB)

Bates, S.S. and V.L. Trainer. 2006. The ecology of harmful diatoms, p. 81-93. In: E. Granéli and J.T. Turner [eds.] Ecology of harmful algae. Ecological Studies, Vol. 189. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg. (PDF file in ResearchGate) (Publisher's link to PDF file)

Bates, S.S., D.L. Garrison, and R.A. Horner 1998. Bloom dynamics and physiology of domoic-acid-producing Pseudo-nitzschia species, p. 267-292. In: D.M. Anderson, A.D. Cembella, and G.M. Hallegraeff [eds.] Physiological ecology of harmful algal blooms. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.

Archived File

The following file is attached to this reference and has been archived. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. (PDF file; 217 KB)

Bejarano, A.C., F.M. Van Dola, F.M. Gulland, T.K. Rowles, and L.H. Schwacke. 2008. Production and toxicity of the marine biotoxin domoic acid and its effects on wildlife: a review. Human Ecol. Risk Assessment 14: 544-567. (PDF file; 2.6 MB) (Publisher's abstract)

Berdalet, E., M. Montresor, B. Reguera, S. Roy, H. Yamazaki, A. Cembella, and R. Raine. 2017. Harmful algal blooms in fjords, coastal embayments, and stratified systems: recent progress and future research. Oceanography 30: 46-57. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia] (PDF file; 1 MB)

Bird, C.J. and J.L.C. Wright. 1989. The shellfish toxin domoic acid. World Aquacult. 20: 40-41.

Black, E.A. 1990. Forewarned and forearmed with algal blooms. Fish Farmer Sept/Oct: 36-37.

Blaylock, R.L. 1994. Excitotoxins - the taste that kills. Health Press, Santa Fe, New Mexico. 300 p. (Author's website) (Book review)

Botana, A.M., P. Otero, P. Rodríguez, A. Alfonso, and L.M. Botana. 2013. Current situation on analysis of marine toxins. Rev. Anal. Chem. 32: 15-34. [includes a section on domoic acid] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Botana, L.M., A. Alfonso, M.R. Vieytes, M.C. Louzao, A.M. Botana, C. Vale, and N. Vilariño. 2017. Determination of saxitoxin, tetrodotoxin and common phycotoxins, p. 431-468. In: Y.-C. Wong and R.J. Lewis [eds.] Analysis of food toxins and toxicants. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Hoboken, NJ. [includes domoic acid] (Publisher’s website)

Bruce, K.L., S.C. Leterme, A.V. Ellis, and C.E. Lenehan. 2015. Approaches for the detection of harmful algal blooms using oligonucleotide interactions. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407: 95-116. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Bunch, L. and P. Krogsgaard-Larsen. 2008. Subtype selective kainic acid receptor agonists: discovery and approaches to rational design. Med. Res. Rev. 29: 3-28. [discusses domoic acid and analogs] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Burge, C.A., C.S. Friedman, R. Getchell, M. House, K.D. Lafferty, L.D. Mydlarz, K.C. Prager, K.P. Sutherland, T. Renault, I. Kiryu, and R. Vega-Thurber. 2016. Complementary approaches to diagnosing marine diseases: a union of the modern and the classic. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B [discusses domoic acid in sea lions as a case study] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Burrell, Christopher Thomas. 2011. Understanding the fate of the neurotoxin domoic acid in coastal systems. Master’s Thesis, University of South Carolina, 55 p. (PDF file; 1.5 MB)

Bustillos-Guzmán, J.J., I. Leyva-Valencia, F.E. Hernández-Sandoval, C.J. Band- Schmidt, D.J. López-Cortés, and E.J. Núñez-Vázquez. 2016. Ficotoxinas en aguas del Golfo de California: una revision, p. 162-179. In: Ernesto García-Mendoza, S.I. Quijano-Scheggia, A. Olivos-Ortiz, and E.J. Núñez-Vázquez [eds.] Florecimientos algales nocivos en México. Imprecolor del Noroeste Ensenada, Baja California. Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Mexico. (in Spanish) [includes domoic acid and Pseudo-nitzschia] (PDF file from ResearchGate; 1.22 MB)

Recent Update - Added: October 16, 2017: 

Bustillos-Guzmán, J.J., I. Leyva-Valencia, F.E. Hernández-Sandoval, C.J. Band-Schmidt, D.J. López-Cortés, and E.J. Núñez-Vázquez. 2016. Ficotoxinas en aguas del Golfo de California: una revisión, p. 162-179. In: Ernesto García-Mendoza, S.I. Quijano-Scheggia, A. Olivos-Ortiz, and E.J. Núñez-Vázquez [eds.] Florecimientos algales nocivos en México. Imprecolor del Noroeste Ensenada, Baja California. Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Mexico. [includes domoic acid and Pseudo-nitzschia] (PDF file from ResearchGate; 1.22 MB)

Caron, D. 2015. State of the Bay Report. “Looking Ahead: Harmful Algal Blooms in Southern California Waters.” Urban Coast 5: 194-197. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia and domoic acid] (PDF file)

Caron, D.A, M.-È. Garneau, E. Seubert, M.D.A. Howard, L. Darjany, A. Schnetzer, I. Cetinić, G. Filteau, P. Lauri, B. Jones, and S. Trussell. 2010. Harmful algae and their potential impacts on desalination operations off southern California. Water Res. 44: 385-416. [discusses domoic acid and Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Cavole, L.M., A.M. Demko, R.E. Diner, A. Giddings, I. Koester, C.M.L.S. Pagniello, M.-L. Paulsen, A. Ramirez-Valdez, S.M. Schwenck, N.K. Yen, M.E. Zill, and P.J.S. Franks. 2016. Biological impacts of the 2013–2015 warm-water anomaly in the Northeast Pacific–winners, losers, and the future. Oceanography 29: 273-285. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia and domoic acid] (PDF file; 1.3 MB)

Cembella, A.D. [guest ed.]. 1993. Issue of "Harmful Algae News" devoted to domoic acid in North America. An IOC Newsletter on toxic algae and algal blooms, Paris, No. 6, 8 p. (PDF file of HAN No. 6; 2.8 MB)

Cembella, A.D. and E.C.D. Todd. 1993. Seafood toxins of algal origin and their control in Canada, p. 129-144. In: I.R. Falconer [ed.] Algal toxins in seafood and drinking water. Academic Press, London.

Chomérat, N., P. Hess, E. Nézan, and P. Lassus. 2016. Toxic and harmful microalgae of the world ocean / Micro-algues toxiques et nuisibles de l’océan mondial. International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae, Inergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO. IOC Manuals and Guides, 68. Denmark [contains a section on Pseudo-nitzschia] (Book review in Harmful Algae) (Order a hard copy)

Christian, B. and B. Luckas. 2008. Determination of marine biotoxins relevant for regulations: from the mouse bioassay to coupled LC-MS methods. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391: 1618-2642. [discusses domoic acid] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Clark, R.F., S.R. Williams, S.P. Nordt, and A.S. Manoguerra. 1999. A review of selected seafood poisonings. Undersea Hyperb. Med. 1999 26: 175-184. [includes a section on domoic acid poisoning] (Pubmed abstract)

Corchado, J.M., J.M. Torres, and M.M. Sacai Caudrado. 2004. Forecasting red tides caused by Pseudo-nitzschia spp. using an artificial intelligence model, p. 531-533. In: K.A. Steidinger, J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo [eds.] Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris. (PDF file) (Website for all PDF files of the Proceedings)

Cortés-Altamirano, R. and A.P. Sierra-Beltrán. 2008. Biotoxins from freshwater and marine harmful algal blooms occurring in Mexico. Toxin Rev. 27: 27-77. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Costa, L.G., G. Giordanoa, and E.M. Faustman. 2010. Domoic acid as a developmental neurotoxin. Neuro Toxicol. 23:409-423. (PDF of text) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Costa, L.G., M. Guizzetti, and A. Vitalone. 2005. Diet-brain connections: role of neurotoxicants. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 19: 395-400. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Couturier, C. 1988. Shellfish toxins aplenty. Bull. Aquaculture Assn. Can. 88-2: 11-27.

D’Elbée, J. 2016. Mémento de Planctonologie Marine. Quae, France, 540 p. (in French) [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia] and shows an updated world distribution map of Pseudo-nitzschia species] (Link to purchase the book)

Dabrowski, T., K. Lyons, C. Cusack, G. Casal, A. Berry, and G.D. Nolan. 2016. Ocean modelling for aquaculture and fisheries in Irish waters. Ocean Sci. 12: 101-116. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia and domoic acid] (PDF file; 5.4 MB)

Davidson, K., R.J. Gowen, P. Tett, E. Bresnan, P.J. Harrison, A. McKinney, S. Milligan, D.K. Mills, J. Silke, and A.-M. Crooks. 2012. Harmful algal blooms: how strong is the evidence that nutrient ratios and forms influence their occurrence? Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 115: 399-413. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Doble, A. 2000. Pharmacology of domoic acid. Food Sci. Technol. 103: 359-372. (Link to PDF file)

Doucette, G.J. and R.M. Kudela. 2017. In situ and real-rime identification of toxins and toxin-producing microorganisms in the environment. Comp. Analyt. Chem. 78: 411-443. [includes Pseudo-nitzschia and domoic acid] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Doucette, T.A. and R.A.R. Tasker. 2008. Domoic acid: detection methods, pharmacology, and toxicology, p. 397-430. In: L.M. Botana [ed.] Seafood and freshwater toxins: pharmacology, physiology, and detection. CRC Press, Boca Raton. (Information about book)

Drinkwater, K. and B. Petrie. 1988. Physical oceanographic observations in the Cardigan Bay region of Prince Edward Island. Can. Tech. Rep. Hydrogr. Ocean Sci. No. 110: 37 p. [describes oceanographic conditions in eastern PEI prior to the 1987 toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom] (PDF file in WAVES; 2.25 MB)

Dyson, K. and D.D. Huppert. 2010. Regional economic impacts of razor clam beach closures due to harmful algal blooms (HABs) on the Pacific coast of Washington. Harmful Algae 9: 264-271. [includes domoic acid as causing one of the economic impacts] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Editorial. 1990. Neurological complications of domoic acid intoxication. Lancet. 336: 601. (Publisher’s web page (no abstract available) and link to PDF file)

EFSA. 2009. Marine biotoxins in shellfish – Summary on regulated marine biotoxins. Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain. The European Food Safety Authority J. 1306: 1-23. [discusses domoic acid] (PDF file; 414 KB)

EFSA. 2009. Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain on a request from the European Commission on marine biotoxins in shellfish – domoic acid. The European Food Safety Authority J. 1181: 1-61. (PDF file of report; 500 KB) (PDF file of Summary; 100 KB)

Erdner, D.L., J. Dyble, M.L. Parsons, R.C. Stevens, K.A. Hubbard, M.L. Wrabel, S.K. Moore, K.A. Lefebvre, D.M. Anderson, P. Bienfang, R.R. Bidigare, M.S. Parker, P. Moeller, L.E. Brand, and V.L. Trainer. 2008. Centers for Oceans and Human Health: a unified approach to the challenge of harmful algal blooms. Environ. Health 7 (Suppl 2): S2 doi:10.1186/1476-069X-7-S2-S2 [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and domoic acid] (Open Access PDF file; 1.2 MB)

Erickson, D. 1992. Demonic [sic] toxin. A new shellfish toxin threatens fisheries. Sci. Am. May, 266: 129-130. [discusses domoic acid]

Fattorusso, E. and M. Piattelli. 1980. Amino acids from marine algae, p. 95-140. In: P.J. Scheuer [ed.] Marine natural products: chemical and biological perspectives, Volume III. Academic press, Toronto, Ontario.

Ferrario, M.E., E.A. Sar, and S.E. Sala. 2002. Diatomeas potencialmente toxígenas del Cono Sur Americano, p. 167-194. In: E.A. Sar, M.E. Ferrario, and B. Reguera [eds.] Floraciones algales nocivas en el cono Sur Americano. Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Madrid. (PDF file for the entire book; 9.6 MB)

Forbes, J.R. [ed.]. 1991. Pacific coast research on toxic marine algae. Can. Tech. Rep. Hydrogr. Ocean Sci. 135: 76 p. [discusses domoic acid and Pseudo-nitzschia] (PDF file in WAVES; 5.47 MB)

Forbes, J.R. [ed.]. 1994. Proceedings of the fourth Canadian workshop on harmful marine algae, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, British Columbia, May 3 - 5, 1994. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2016: 86 p.[contains information about domoic acid and Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (PDF file; 4.13 MB)

Fritz, L. 1992. The use of cellular probes in studying marine phytoplankton. Korean J. Phycol. (Algae) 7: 319-324. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia] (Publisher's abstract and link to free PDF file)

Fryxell, G.A. and G.R. Hasle. 2003. Taxonomy of harmful diatoms, p. 465-509. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson, and A.D. Cembella [eds.] Manual on harmful marine microalgae, Monographs on Oceanographic Methodology, Vol. 11, Chapter 9. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO), Paris. (Information about the book)

Fryxell, G.A. and M.C. Villac. 1999. Toxic and harmful marine diatoms, p. 419-428. In: E.F. Stoermer and J.P. Smol [eds.] The diatoms. Applications for the environmental and earth sciences. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. (Chapter extract, from publisher)

Fryxell, G.A., M.C. Villac, and L.P. Shapiro. 1997. The occurrence of the toxic diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) on the West Coast of the USA, 1920-1996: a review. Phycologia 36: 419-437. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Fu, F.X., A.O. Tatters, and D.A. Hutchins. 2012. Global change and the future of harmful algal blooms in the ocean. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 470: 207-233. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Fukuyo, Y., M. Kodama, T. Omura, K. Furuya, E.F. Furio, M. Cayme, P.O. Lim, V.H. Dao, Y. Kotaki, K. Matsuoka, M. Iwataki, R. Sriwoon, and T. Lirdwitayaprasit. 2011. Ecology and oceanography of harmful marine microalgae (Project-2), p. 23-48. In: S. Nishida, M.D. Fortes, and N. Miyazaki [eds.] Coastal Marine Science in Southeast Asia. Synthesis Report of the Core University Program of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science: Coastal Marine Science (2001–2010),TERRAPUB. [section on Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and Nitzschia navis-varingica in Southeast Asia] (PDF file; 1.89 MB)

Gárate-Lizárraga, I., B. Pérez-Cruz, J.A. Díaz-Ortiz, Y. Okolodkov, and S. López-Silva. 2016. Florecimientos algales nocivos en las aguas costeras del estado de Guerrero, México. p. 228-241. In: García-Mendoza, E., S.I. Quijano-Scheggia, A. Olivos-Ortiz, and E.J. Nunez-Vazquez [eds.] Florecimientos algales nocivos en Mexico. Ensenada, Mexico. Imprecolor del Noroeste Ensenada, Baja California. Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Mexico. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia species] (PDF file in ResearchGate; 4.7 MB)

García-Altares, M. 2017. Structural diversity of microalgal marine toxins. In: J. Diogene and M. Campas [eds.] Recent advances in the analysis of marine toxins. Comp. Anal. Chem. 78: 35-88. [includes domoic acid] (Publisher’s preview and link to PDF file)

Recent Update - Added: October 16, 2017: 

García-Altares, M. 2017. Structural diversity of microalgal marine toxins. In: J. Diogene and M. Campas [eds.] Recent advances in the analysis of marine toxins. Comp. Anal. Chem. 78: 35-88. [includes domoic acid] (Publisher’s preview and link to PDF file)

Gerssen, A., I.E. Pol-Hofstad, M. Poelman, P.P.J. Mulder, H.J. van den Top, and J. de Boer. 2010. Marine toxins: chemistry, toxicity, occurrence and detection, with special reference to the Dutch situation. Toxins 2: 878-904. [discusses domoic acid] (Open Access PDF file; 675 KB) (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Giddings, S.N., P. MacCready, B.M. Hickey, N.S. Banas, K.A. Davis, S.A. Siedlecki, V.L. Trainer, R.M. Kudela, N.A. Pelland, and T.P. Connolly. 2014. Hindcasts of potential harmful algal bloom transport pathways on the Pacific Northwest coast. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 119: 2439-2461.[discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Gleason, F.H., T.G. Jephcott, F.C. Küpper, M. Gerphagnon, T. Sime-Ngando, S.A. Karpov, L. Guillou, and F.F. Van Ogtrop. 2015. Potential roles for recently discovered chytrid parasites in the dynamics of harmful algal blooms. Fungal Biol. Rev. 29: 20–33. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Gordon, D.C., Jr. [ed.]. 1991. Proceedings of the second Canadian workshop on harmful marine algae, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, October 2 - 4, 1990. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 1799: 66 p.[contains information about domoic acid and Pseudo-nitzschia spp.] (PDF file; 5.37 MB)

Grant, K.S., T.M. Burbacher, E.M. Faustman, and L. Gratttan. 2010. Domoic acid: neurobehavioral consequences of exposure to a prevalent marine biotoxin. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 32: 132-141. (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Gray, C. 1988. Mussel mystery: "The more you know, the more you don't know". Can. Med. Assoc. J. 138: 350-351. (Open Access PDF file from PubMed; 800 KB)

Greenfield, D., R. Marin III, G.J. Doucette, C. Mikulski, S. Jensen, B. Roman, N. Alvarado, C.A. Scholin. 2008. Field applications of the second-generation Environmental Sample Processor (ESP) for remote detection of harmful algae: 2006-2007. Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods. 6: 667-679. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia and domoic acid] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Grienke, U., J. Silke, and D. Tasdemir. 2014. Bioactive compounds from marine mussels and their effects on human health. Food Chem. 142: 48-60. [discusses domoic acid] (Publisher’s abstract and link to PDF file)

Gunner, S.W. 1990. Mussel poisoning in Canada. J. Toxicol., Toxin Rev. 9: 89.

Gvozdenović, S., M. Mandić, D. Drakulović, and A. Joksimovi. 2015. The shellfish biotoxins. Agricult. Forest. 61: 135-142. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and domoic acid on the Montenegrin coast of the south-eastern Adriatic Sea] (PDF file in ResearchGate)

Hall, S. 1988. PSP and other shellfish toxins: recent outbreaks and research. J. Shellfish Res. 7: 565.

Hall, S. 1991. Natural toxins. In: D.R. Ward and C. Hackney [eds.] Microbiology of marine food products, p. 301-330. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.

Hallegraeff, G.M. 1993. A review of harmful algal blooms and their apparent global increase. Phycologia 32: 79-99. (Publisher's link to PDF file)

Hallegraeff, G.M. 2017. Marine phycotoxins and seafood safety, p. 63-84. In: A. Witczak and Z.E. Sikorski [eds.] Toxins and other harmful compounds in foods. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. Boca Raton, FL. [includes a section on ASP] (Publisher’s website and link to purchase PDF file) (View in Google Books)

Hanic, L.A. 2014. The 1987 PEI toxic mussel episode – A personal perspective. Bates, S.S. [ed.] Unpublished book. 113 p. (PDF file in ResearchGate; 8 MB) (PDF file in the UPEI Robertson Library; 64 MB, but a smaller file will soon be available)

Hansen, G., J. Turquet, J.P. Quod, L. Ten-Hage, C. Lugomela, M. Kyewalyanga, M. Hurbungs, P. Wawie, B. Ogongo, S. Tunje, and H. Rakotoarinjanahary. 2001. Potentially harmful microalgae of the Western Indian Ocean - a guide based on a preliminary survey. IOC Manuals & Guides No. 41. IOC of UNESCO, Paris. [section on Pseudo-nitzschia species, p. 64-68] (PDF file outside DFO's website; link to entire book - 2.7 MB)

Hargraves, P.E. and L. Maranda. 2002. Potentially toxic or harmful microalgae from the northeast coast. Northeastern Naturalist 9: 81-120. (Text of article in Find Articles)

Hasle, G.R. and G.A. Fryxell. 1995. Taxonomy of diatoms, p. 341-366. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson, and A.D. Cembella [eds.] IOC manual on harmful marine algae, IOC manuals and guides 33. UNESCO, Paris.

Higa, T. and M. Kuniyoshi. 2000. Toxins associated with medicinal and edible seaweeds. J. Toxicol. Toxin Rev. 19: 119-137. [discusses domoic acid and kainic acid] (Publisher's abstract and link to PDF file)

Hinder, S.L., G.C. Hays, C.J. Brooks, A.P. Davies, M. Edwards, A.W. Walne, and M.B. Gravenor. 2011. Toxic marine microalgae and shellfish poisoning in the British isles: history, review of epidemiology, and future implications. Environ. Health 10: 54 (12 p.). [discusses ASP and Pseudo-nitzschia species] (Open Access PDF file; 320 KB) (Publisher's abstract and link to Open Access PDF file)

Horner, R.A. 1993. Toxic diatoms - report on a workshop. Hydrobiolgia 269: 527. (Publisher's link to PDF file)

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Recent Update - Added: October 16, 2017: 

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Sakka Hlaili, A., I. Sahraoui Khalifa, D. Bouchouicha-Smida, S. Melliti Garali, J. Ksouri, M. Chalghaf, S.S. Bates, N. Lundholm, W.H.C.F. Kooistra, P. de la Iglesia, and J. Diogène. 2016. Toxic and potentially toxic diatom blooms in Tunisian (SW Mediterranean) waters: review of ten years of investigations. Adv. Env. Res. 48: 51-69. [discusses Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha, P. delicatissima, P. cf. seriata, P. braziliana, P. fryxelliana, P. hasleana, P. mannii, Nitzschia bizertensis] (Link to PDF file of corrected proofs in ResearchGate) (Publisher’s Table of Contents)

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